Samples were gated to eliminate cells in which GFP emitted strong fluorescence. The acquired FACS data were ana lyzed using ModFit LT software. Analysis of apoptosis Flow cytometry was used to detect Annexin V positive apoptotic cells. Transfected cells were incubated for 48 h and then the cell monolayers were detached with trypsin and ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid, washed twice in PBS, and re suspended in binding buffer. An aliquot of 1 x 105 cells was stained with 7 AAD and Annexin V PE for 15 min at room temperature according to the manufac turers instructions and then analyzed on a FACSCalibur flow cytometer with Cell Quest soft ware. Cells were considered to be in the early stages of apoptosis if they showed staining for Annexin V PE but not 7 AAD.
The double positive population was considered to be in the late stages of apoptosis, or already dead. Caspase 3 activity was measured using a caspase 3 CPP32 fluorometric assay Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries kit, according to the manu facturers instructions. Briefly, transfected HeLa cells were harvested, washed twice with PBS, and treated with lysis buffer. Cell lysates were centrifuged at 15000 �� g for 10 min at 4 C, supernatants were collected, and protein concentrations were determined with the Pierce BCA protein assay kit. For each experi mental point, 50 ug of total protein extract was incu bated with the substrate for 2 h at 37 C. Caspase activity was quantified spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 405 nm using a multi label counter.
Imaging of cultured cells HeLa Fucci2 cells were transiently transfected with Tax IRES CFP or the control vector and were subjected to long term, time lapse imaging using a computer assisted fluorescence microscope equipped with an objective lens, a halogen lamp, a red LED, a CCD camera, differential interference contrast optical components, and interference filters. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries For fluorescence imaging, the halogen lamp was used with three filter cubes for Cilengitide observing mCherry, Venus, and CFP fluores cence. For DIC imaging, the red LED was used with a filter cube containing Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries an analyzer. Image acquisition and analysis were performed using MetaMorph 7. 7. 4 software. Fusarium head blight caused e. g. by F. graminearum Schwabe Petch is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide, causing significant Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries reductions in grain yield and quality. The most efficient strategy to control FHB in wheat is the use of resistant cultivars.
However, in hexaploid wheat the resistance to FHB is highly complex. Since 1999, over 200 QTL have been reported, whereas only a few QTL were found to be stable in different genetic backgrounds and useful for breeding. The most stable QTL were obtained from the Chinese wheat varieties Sumai 3 and Wangshuibai. However, poor agronomic perform ance and the frequent occurrence of genetic linkage drag make them less suitable donors of resistant genes.