A 64-gene profile reproducibly differentiated severe NAFLD from mild NAFLD, and a 20-gene subset within this profile correlated with NAFLD severity, independent of other factors known to influence NAFLD progression. Multiple genes involved with tissue repair/regeneration and certain metabolism-related genes
were induced in severe NAFLD. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and IHC confirmed deregulation of metabolic and regenerative pathways in severe NAFLD and revealed overlap among the gene expression patterns of severe NAFLD, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Conclusion: By demonstrating specific metabolic and repair pathways that are differentially activated in livers with severe NAFLD, gene profiling identified novel targets that can be exploited to improve diagnosis and treatment of patients who are at greatest risk for NAFLD-related CH5424802 datasheet morbidity and mortality. (Hepatology 2014;59:471–482) “
“Obstructive cholestasis induces liver injury, postoperative complications, and mortality after surgery. Adaptive control of cholestasis, including bile salt homeostasis, is necessary for recovery and survival. Peripheral serotonin is a cytoprotective neurotransmitter also associated with liver regeneration. The effect of serotonin on cholestatic liver
injury is not known. Therefore, we tested whether serotonin affects the severity of cholestatic liver injury. We induced cholestasis by ligation of the bile duct (BDL) in either wild-type (WT) mice or mice lacking peripheral Phospholipase D1 serotonin (Tph1−/− and immune thrombocytopenic [ITP] mice). Liver injury was assessed by the levels of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase selleck chemicals llc (ALT) and tissue necrosis. Bile salt–regulating genes were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Tph1−/− mice displayed higher levels of plasma AST, ALT, bile salts, and hepatic necrosis after 3 days of BDL than WT mice. Likewise, liver injury
was disproportional in ITP mice. Moreover, severe cholestatic complications and mortality after prolonged BDL were increased in Tph1−/− mice. Despite the elevation in toxic bile salts, expression of genes involved in bile salt homeostasis and detoxification were not affected in Tph1−/− livers. In contrast, the bile salt reabsorption transporters Ostα and Ostβ were up-regulated in the kidneys of Tph1−/− mice, along with a decrease in urinary bile salt excretion. Serotonin reloading of Tph1−/− mice reversed this phenotype, resulting in a reduction of circulating bile salts and liver injury. Conclusion: We propose a physiological function of serotonin is to ameliorate liver injury and stabilize the bile salt pool through adaptation of renal transporters in cholestasis. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:209–218) Bile salts are biological detergents produced primarily by hepatocytes for digestion and absorption of fatty nutrients in the intestines.