et al. (2007) proposed seven categories of EPS: structural, sorptive, surface-active, active, informative, redox-active selleck chemicals and nutritive EPS. However, only four of these classes occur in molecules identified in B. subtilis: the categories include structural, sorptive, surface-active and active EPS (Table S1). Structural EPS refer to molecules such as neutral polysaccharides, which serve as architectural components in the matrix, facilitating water retention and cell protection. Sorptive EPS are composed of charged polymers, whose function is sorption to other charged molecules involved in cell–surface interactions. Surface-active EPS are molecules with an amphiphilic behavior. These molecules, with different chemical structures and surface properties, are involved in biofilm formation and sometimes possess antibacterial or antifungal activities. The active EPS group is the most diverse group and includes all extracellular proteins produced by B. subtilis. Only those enzymes required for biofilm formation and architecture are discussed. Structural EPS are mainly composed of neutral polysaccharides that lend structure to the exopolymeric matrix.
These exopolysaccharides are formed in the biofilm matrix Veliparib chemical structure of many bacterial species for example Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes (Morikawa et al., 2006; Ryder et al., 2007). However, only a few studies report the
isolation and identification of exopolysaccharides Ergoloid from B. subtilis. The best-studied exopolysaccharide produced by B. subtilis is levan type I and II. Levan type I consists of β-2,6-linked d-fructose units, whereas type II is a fructose polymer with a glucose residue linked to the terminal fructose by α-glycoside bond. Levan can be synthesized outside the cell following the extrusion of the extracellular enzyme levansucrase (Abdel-Fattah et al., 2005; El-Refai et al., 2009). Further details on levansucrase extrusion and induction are included in the section describing active EPS. Levan is widely distributed and produced by various plants and microorganisms including B. subtilis strains 327UH, ISS3119, QB112 and Pseudomonas sp. (Yamamoto et al., 1985; Pereira et al., 2001; Shida et al., 2002). In Pseudomonas, it has been suggested that levan forms a capsule protecting against the attack of bacteriophages and also helps prevent cell desiccation (Paton, 1960). Capsule formation draws nutrients by attracting solutes and creating an osmotic gradient until equilibrium is reached (Paton, 1960). Another ecological role of levan has been described for Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) polymyxa CF43, where this polysaccharide facilitates the aggregation of root-adhering soil on wheat plants (Bezzate et al., 2001).