LC neurons switch between phasic and high tonic discharge modes to bias behavior differently and these shifts facilitate adaptation in a dynamic environment (Fig. 1) (see for
reviews (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005 and Bouret and Sara, 2005)). LC neuronal recordings in monkeys performing operant Selleckchem Neratinib tasks suggest that phasic LC discharge is associated with focused attention and staying on-task whereas high tonic discharge is associated with labile attention and going off-task (Usher et al., 1999 and Rajkowski et al., 1994). A shift from phasic to high tonic LC discharge has been suggested to promote behavioral flexibility, disengaging animals from attention to specific stimuli and ongoing behaviors and favoring scanning the environment for stimuli that promote alternate, more rewarding behaviors (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005). The ability to shift between phasic and tonic firing modes would promote rapid
adjustments in response to a stressor or after stressor termination (Fig. 1). Convergent lines of evidence suggest that stressors that initiate the HPA response to stress also activate the LC-NE system and the parallel engagement of these two systems serves to coordinate endocrine and cognitive limbs of the stress response (Valentino and Van Bockstaele, 2008). This has been studied using different stressors including shock, auditory www.selleckchem.com/products/isrib-trans-isomer.html stress, immunological stress, autonomic stressors, restraint and social stress and different endpoints including NE turnover, NE release, LC neuronal activity, c-fos expression or tyrosine hydroxylase expression (Cassens
et al., 1981, Cassens et al., 1980, Korf et al., 1973, Thierry et al., 1968, Beck and Isotretinoin Fibiger, 1995, Bonaz and Tache, 1994, Britton et al., 1992, Campeau and Watson, 1997, Chan and Sawchenko, 1995, Chang et al., 2000, Curtis et al., 2012, Dun et al., 1995, Duncan et al., 1993, Funk and Amir, 2000, Graham et al., 1995, Ishida et al., 2002, Kollack-Walker et al., 1997, Lacosta et al., 2000, Makino et al., 2002, Rusnak et al., 2001, Sabban and Kvetnansky, 2001, Smagin et al., 1994, Smith et al., 1992, Smith et al., 1991 and Valentino et al., 1991). In response to acute stress LC spontaneous discharge increases and this is temporally correlated to cortical EEG activation indicative of arousal (Curtis et al., 2012, Lechner et al., 1997 and Page et al., 1992). Moreover, LC activation is necessary for forebrain EEG activation by stress because selective bilateral inactivation of LC neurons with clonidine microinfusions prevents this response (Page et al., 1992). As LC spontaneous discharge rate increases, responses to discrete sensory stimuli are attenuated (Curtis et al., 2012 and Valentino and Wehby, 1988a). Thus, acute stressors bias LC discharge towards a high tonic mode that would facilitate disengagement from ongoing tasks, scanning attention and behavioral flexibility, all of which would be adaptive in coping with an immediate threat (Fig. 2A).