“Overconsumption of fructose results in hepatic


“Overconsumption of fructose results in hepatic

dyslipidemia, which has a documented correlation with metabolic syndrome. We examined whether the ingestion of phospholipids (PL) from soybeans prevents fructose-induced metabolic abnormalities. Rats were fed either a fructose-free diet (C), a 60% fructose diet (F), or a 60% fructose plus 3% PL diet (F-PL) for 10 wk. At wk 8, plasma glucose concentrations after glucose loading were significantly higher in rats fed the F diet than in rats fed the C and F-PL diets, which did not differ from one another. The concentrations of hepatic TG, diglycerides, ceramides, and oleates in rats fed the F diet for 10 wk was significantly higher than those in rats fed the C diet. The increases PCI-32765 solubility dmso were prevented by concurrent PL ingestion; concentrations did not differ between the F-PL and C groups. Dietary fructose increased the mRNA expression of SREBP1, ChREBP, and genes related to lipogenesis. PL completely inhibited these increases. Furthermore, reflecting the difference at the mRNA level, lipogenic enzyme activities were greater in rats fed the

F diet than in rats fed the C diet, and PL ingestion suppressed the increased activities by fructose feeding. Treatment of cultured Hep-G2 cells with fructose for 24 h increased the levels of SREBP1 and ChREBP nuclear proteins, which were suppressed by culture with purified PL components, especially phosphatidylethanolamine and

phosphatidylinositol. These findings indicate that PL prevents fructose-induced GDC 0032 inhibitor metabolic abnormalities MLN4924 in association with alterations of the hepatic lipid profile by inhibiting de novo lipogenesis. J. Nutr. 141: 2003-2009, 2011.”
“What is known and Objective: ABT-594 is a non-opioid, non-NSAID analgesic. The objective of this work was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of ABT-594 in subjects with neuropathic pain. Methods: Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of ABT-594 in subjects with painful diabetic polyneuropathy were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-centre, 7-week Phase 2 study. Subjects (N = 266) were approximately equally divided into four groups to receive BID regimens of placebo or 150, 225 and 300 mu g of ABT-594. ABT-594 concentrations were determined from all subjects, whereas a subset of subjects provided intensive pharmacokinetic samples on two occasions. One- and two-compartment models were explored for characterizing plasma ABT-594 concentrationtime profiles. The relative importance of covariates (age, weight, body surface area, creatinine clearance, gender, nicotine use and albumin concentrations) was examined by use of the likelihood ratio test. Model building was accomplished using stepwise forward selection (P < 0.05) and backward elimination (P < 0.005) of covariates. Population analyses were performed using NONMEM.

The results revealed that the left dorsolateral prefrontal

The results revealed that the left dorsolateral prefrontal

cortex (DLPFC) was more active in the higher-order switching, and the right fronto-polar cortex (FPC) was significantly activated with the lower-order switching. We discuss a possible functional model https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly333531.html in the prefrontal cortex where the left DLPFC encodes the hierarchical organization of behaviours and the right FPC maintains and updates multiple behavioural. This interpretation is highly consistent with the previous findings and current theories of hierarchical organization in the prefrontal functional network. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Dentinal proteases are believed to play an important role in the degradation of hybrid layers (HL). This study investigated the HL gelatinolytic activity by in situ zymography and functional enzyme activity assay. The hypotheses were that HLs created by an etch-and-rinse adhesive exhibit active gelatinolytic activity, and MMP-2 and

-9 activities in dentin increase during adhesive NSC23766 supplier procedures. Etched-dentin specimens were bonded with Adper Scotchbond 1XT and restored with composite. Adhesive/dentin interface slices were placed on microscope slides, covered with fluorescein-conjugated gelatin, and observed with a multi-photon confocal microscope after 24 hrs. Human dentin powder aliquots were prepared and assigned to the following treatments: A, untreated; B, etched with 10% phosphoric acid; or C, etched with 10% phosphoric acid and mixed with Scotchbond 1XT. The MMP-2 and -9 activities of extracts of dentin powder were measured with functional enzyme assays. Intense and continuous enzyme activity was detected at the bottom of the HL, while that activity was more irregular in the upper HL. Both acid-etching and subsequent adhesive application significantly increased MMP-2 and -9 activities (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate, for the first time, intrinsic MMP activity in the HL, and intense activation

of matrix-bound MMP activity with both etching and adhesive application.”
“Tonic immobility (TI) is a reversible coma-like stasis inherent to a variety of terrestrial and aquatic taxa, including elasmobranchs, yet virtually nothing is known about find more its underlying neurological and physiological processes in any taxa. The purpose of this research was to investigate the physiological effects of TI on the juvenile lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris). Eight juvenile lemon sharks were subjected to four, three-hour treatments during which blood was sampled at 0, 30,90 and 180 min, over a 6 week period. Treatments were differentiated by the method of maintaining the shark, either in TI, or allowed to swim freely between blood samples and the presence or absence of a pre-treatment exercise period designed to simulate the capture induced exhaustion that usually precedes the use TI in the field.

1) In female patients older than 4 5 months of age, there was al

1). In female patients older than 4.5 months of age, there was also a trend toward smaller ICV in patients with the combined form than in those with sagittal synostosis alone (p < 0.1), and the ICV of patients with the combined form was significantly

smaller than the volume in controls in the same age group (p < 0.05). Brain tissue volume was significantly smaller in both patient groups than in controls (p < 0.05). Ventricular volume was significantly increased (compared with controls) only in the patients with isolated sagittal synostosis who were younger than 4.5 months of age (p < 0.05). Overall CSF space, however, was significantly larger in both patient groups in patients younger than 4.5 months of age (p < 0.05).\n\nConclusions. These findings raise concerns about intracranial and brain volume reduction in patients with sagittal and combined www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD0530.html metopic and sagittal synostoses and the possibility that this volume reduction may be associated with brain dysfunction. Because the ICV reduction is greater selleck chemicals llc in combined metopic and sagittal synostosis in patients older than 4.5 months

of age than in sagittal synostosis in this age group, the potential for brain dysfunction may be particularly true for these younger infants. (DOI: 10.3171/2011.6.FOCUS11100)”
“This study reports on controlling the formation of nanoimpurities on suspended graphene to investigate the inelastic scattering of electrons using a two-phonon Raman process. Results were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning Raman spectroscopy in the same region of suspended graphene. The findings revealed that the area with a higher concentration of impurities shown in the TEM image corresponds directly to the area with a lower integrated intensity and a wider full width at half maximum in the Raman mapping of the 2D band and vice versa. The same trend is also apparent in the 2D and D+D bands.

In conclusion, the results are explained by an increase in the electronic scattering rate due to impurities, which affects two-phonon Raman scattering. Combining the TEM image LY3039478 and Raman mapping image effectively demonstrates how electron behavior is affected by the distribution of impurities in graphene systems. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease in which disability progresses over time. Progressive forms of MS have a poor prognosis, are associated with greater levels of disability and, unfortunately, are unresponsive to current treatments. Here, we have reviewed the management of 100 patients with MS. The majority of these patients had progressive disease, Expanded Disability Status Scale ‘scores >6, and extensive medical complications. A significant number of patients in this cohort were also treated with MS disease-modifying agents that lack efficacy in patients with progressive disease.

We assessed the characteristics

We assessed the characteristics Bafilomycin A1 of successful invaders and the interaction of environmental factors and life-history traits for alien plant species. The vascular plants were recorded from 52 agricultural landscapes in Finland. We compared the traits of native and alien plant species with Fisher’s exact test and used a three table ordination analysis, RLQ analysis, to relate species traits to environmental conditions. Species were clustered according to their position on the RLQ axes, and the clusters were tested for phylogenetic

independence. The successful alien plant species were associated with life form and preferences for moisture and nitrogen, but the trait composition varied according to the habitat type. Two RLQ axes explained 80.5% of the variation, and the species traits were significantly associated with environmental variables. The clustering showed that the occurrence of alien plant species in agricultural habitats was driven by invasion history, traits related to dispersal (dispersal type, seed mass) and habitat preferences, as well as environmental features, such as geographical location, temperature

and the quality and disturbance regime of the habitats. All clusters were phylogenetically non-independent. Thus, the clusters of alien species comprised species of diverse taxonomic affinities, although, they shared the traits explaining their occurrence in particular habitats. This information is useful for understanding the link between species traits and the environmental conditions of the habitats, and complexity of the invasion process.”
“Background: Little VX-680 supplier LCL161 supplier is known about recurrent tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries. The objective

of this study was to determine the probability of TB recurrence and the associated risk factors among cured patients in a city with moderate TB incidence.\n\nMethods: A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was carried out in Barcelona, Spain. All patients with culture-confirmed TB and drug susceptibility testing were included between 1995 and 1997 and followed until December 2005. The authors defined recurrence as a new TB event after a patient was considered cured and had remained free of the disease for a minimum of 1 year. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were used in the statistical analysis. HRs with 95% CIs were calculated.\n\nResults: Among the 681 patients studied, the authors observed 29 recurrences (recurrence rate 0.53/100 person-years of follow-up). The mean incidence of TB in Barcelona from 1995 to 2005 was 36.25 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. The incidence of recurrence was 14.6 times higher in the cohort than the incidence of a first TB episode in the general population. The factors associated with recurrence at bivariate level were being male, being an immigrant, being an intravenous drug user (IDU), having human immunodeficiency virus, smoking, being an alcoholic, being in prison, and having both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB.

When mFOLFIRINOX is coupled with aggressive surgery, high resecti

When mFOLFIRINOX is coupled with aggressive surgery, high resection rates are possible even when the initial imaging shows locally advanced disease. Although data are still maturing, resection appears to offer at least a progression-free survival advantage.”
“Arenaviruses cause acute hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality. Entry of the virus into the host cell is mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein, GPC. In contrast to other class I viral envelope glycoproteins, the mature GPC complex contains a cleaved stable signal peptide (SSP) in addition to the canonical receptor-binding (G1) and transmembrane fusion (G2) subunits. SSP is critical for

intracellular transport of the GPC complex to the cell surface and for its membrane-fusion activity. Previous studies MI-503 in vitro have suggested that SSP is retained in GPC through interaction with a zinc-binding domain (ZBD) in the cytoplasmic tail of G2. Here Savolitinib in vivo we used NMR spectroscopy to determine the structure of Junin virus (JUNV) ZBD (G2 residues 445-485) and investigate its interaction with a conserved Cys residue (Cys-57) in SSP. We show that JUNV ZBD displays a novel fold containing two

zinc ions. One zinc ion is coordinated by His-447, His-449, Cys-455, and His-485. The second zinc ion is coordinated by His-459, Cys-467, and Cys-469 and readily accepts Cys-57 from SSP as the fourth ligand. Our studies describe the structural basis for retention

of the unique SSP subunit and suggest a mechanism whereby SSP is positioned in the GPC complex to modulate pH-dependent membrane fusion.”
“The infrared spectrum of the nu(3) band of an OCS (carbonyl sulfide) molecule embedded inside pure He-3 droplets of about 12 x 10(3) atoms reported in 1998 [S. Grebenev, J. P. Toennies, and A. F. Vilesov, Science 279, 2083 (1998)] is carefully evaluated. The spectrum, which consists of a broad central peak and a distinct shoulder at lower energy, was analyzed by assuming unresolved rotational line structure of either a linear or a symmetric top. In each case the spectrum was fitted using either Lorentzian or Gaussian peak shapes with a preassigned fixed temperature of 0.15 K or a best fit temperature. Many of the fits describe the spectra nearly equally well and indicate broad R(0), R(1), click here and P(1) peaks but no Q-branch, a moment of inertia which is about a factor six greater than for the free molecule, and a temperature of 0.07 +/- 0.06 K which is significantly less than 0.15 K determined for mixed He-3/He-4 droplets. The increased moment of inertia is consistent with about 11 attached He-3 atoms which take part in the end-over-end rotations of the chromophore. The large line widths are attributed to creation of particle-hole pair excitations in the fermionic droplets. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.

Results Seven out of 109 members

in this pedigree harbou

Results. Seven out of 109 members

in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII’s clinical tumour (cTN) was classified as c 4bN3a (IV stage). In two other cases, gastric GSK1904529A chemical structure carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII’s family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer’s development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance selleck compound protocol for asymptomatic members.”
“Plant materials have long been known to contain biochemical substances that could have

adverse effects on animal tissues. This study was initiated to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome on biochemical and haematological indices of hepatotoxicity in adult albino Wistar rats. Four groups of five rats per group were used. Group A was given only distilled water and served as control, while groups B, C and D were given 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively, by oral administration for four weeks. The results revealed that there was a dose-dependent significant increase (p<0.05) in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides and total bilirubin

of all the treatments groups when compared with the control group, while the high density lipoprotein cholesterol of all the treatment groups was significantly (p<0.05) reduced. The 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract produced a significant decrease (p<0.05) in PCV and haemoglobin concentration. The levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, glucose, albumin, globulin and total protein of all the treatment groups were not significantly (p>0.05) altered. These results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of C. planchonii rhizome might be injurious to the liver, if administered at a high dose and over a prolonged period of treatment.”
“Background: There are many reports about the anti-arrhythmic Staurosporine effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, however, the mechanisms are still not completely delineated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of action potentials and transient outward potassium currents (I-to) of Sprague-Dawley rat ventricular myocytes and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on action potentials and I-to.\n\nMethods: The calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzyme digestion. Action potentials and I-to of epicardial, mid-cardial and endocardial ventricular myocytes were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp technique.\n\nResults: 1.

15 ng/ml, whereas in those patients with higher values of cTnI, w

15 ng/ml, whereas in those patients with higher values of cTnI, waiting for cTnI to reduce before considering surgery seems to be a wise option in order to decrease the incidence of MACEs and hospital mortality.”
“PURPOSE. To report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with optic disk melanocytoma successfully treated with bevacizumab.\n\nMETHODS. A 63-year-old man complained of visual impairment in his left eye. His visual acuity was 0.9 OS. Fundus examination

showed optic disk melanocytoma associated with serous retinal detachment and mild hemorrhage. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography revealed CNV adjacent to the optic disc. Intravitreous bevacizumab (IVB) was performed 3 times.\n\nRESULTS. Kinase Inhibitor Library clinical trial Choroidal neovascularization and serous retinal detachment disappeared at 5 months after IVB. Visual acuity recovered to 1.5 OS and has been stable for 1 year follow-up. No adverse events were found related to IVB.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Intravitreous bevacizumab can be a beneficial treatment for CNV associated with optic disc melanocytoma.”
“Although native to the southeastern United States, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus

clarkii) has become established worldwide through accidental and intentional actions by humans. In the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California, the presence of the omnivorous LGX818 crayfish is associated with the absence or reduced abundance of native amphibians. The original source of P. clarkii in southern California is unknown; however genetic analysis can be used to determine sources of invasion. We sequenced 16S rRNA subunit and cytochrome oxidase AZD8055 research buy I (COI) mitochondrial genes to trace the origins of P. clarkii in the Santa Monica Mountains. The resulting haplotype network of the combined COI and 16S rRNA subunit genes showed 19 distinct haplotypes and suggested multiple introductions

of crayfish to the Santa Monica Mountains from possible source locations in Texas, Florida and Louisiana. Identifying original sources and mechanisms of introduction can slow and prevent further expansion of P. clarkii.”
“ObjectiveProviders recommend waiting to transplant patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to lupus nephritis (LN), to allow for quiescence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related immune activity. However, these recommendations are not standardized, and we sought to examine whether duration of time to transplant was associated with risk of graft failure in US LN-ESRD patients. MethodsUsing national ESRD surveillance data (United States Renal Data System), we identified 4,743 US patients with LN-ESRD who received a first transplant on or after January 1, 2000 (followup through September 30, 2011).

A pulse of both pesticides affected antipredator traits involved

A pulse of both pesticides affected antipredator traits involved in avoiding detection by predators as well as traits involved in escape after detection. After a pesticide pulse, larvae increased activity levels and even further https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2606368.html increased the number of walks when predation risk was present. Further, an endosulfan pulse tended to reduce escape swimming speed. In contrast, previous exposure to Roundup caused the larvae to swim faster, yet less often when attacked. Importantly, although both studied pesticides induced maladaptive changes in overall activity,

only for endosulfan this resulted in an increased mortality by predation. Our study highlights that considering changed predator-prey interactions may improve ecological risk evaluations of short pesticide pulses, yet also underscores the need (1) to consider effects on all important antipredator traits of the prey as trait compensation may occur learn more and (2) to effectively score the outcome of predator-prey interactions in staged encounters. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity,

antiproliferative activity, and apoptosis induction activity of two modified glycosides – digoxin and proscillaridin A – conjugated to a generation 3 polyamidoamine dendrimer (G3 PAMAM-NH2) in human breast cancer selleck cells. The results suggest that conjugation with the G3 PAMAM-NH2, dendrimer enhances the cytotoxicity of modified digoxin and proscillaridin A both in MCF-7 and in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Additionally, the conjugate-induced

apoptosis was significantly greater than apoptosis evoked by free modified digoxin and proscillaridin A.”
“Chemical facial cellulitis, while commonly seen in domestic accidents or attempted suicide, is uncommon in the dental office and hence rarely addressed in the dental literature. We present an unusual case of chemical facial cellulitis caused by inadvertent injection of formalin into the soft tissues of the oral cavity, which was mistaken for local anesthesia solution. This report comprises the immediate symptoms, possible root cause, and management of the difficult situation. We also provide some guidelines to avoid such unfortunate events. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2012;113:581-582)”
“Despite evidence of persistent methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in the South River (Virginia, USA) ecosystem, there is little information concerning MeHg-associated neurological impacts in resident wildlife.

, hepatomorphologic alterations, activity of superoxide dismutase

, hepatomorphologic alterations, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR), gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and DNA integrity were evaluated in the liver. IAA administration did not show any alterations in any of the parameters available, except for a reduction of the gene expression for antioxidant enzyrries

by 55, 56, 27, and 28% for SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR upon T(500). respectively compared with the control. Several hepatic alterations were observed by DEN exposure. Moreover, IAA administration at 3 doses was shown to provide a total prevention of the active reduction of CAT and GR induced by DEN exposure TNF-alpha inhibitor compared with the control. IAA at T5(00) was shown to give partial protection (87, 71, 57, and 90% for respectively SOD, CAT. GPx. and

GR) on the down-regulation of the enzymes induced by DEN and this auxin showed a partial protection (50%) on DEN-induced DNA fragmentation for both parameters when compared to DEN alone. This work showed IAA hepatocarcinogenesis protection for the first time by means of a DEN-protective effect on CAT and GR activity. and by affecting antioxidant gene expression and DNA fragmentation. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“There have been conflicting DMXAA reports on the requirement of GSK- 3 beta- mediated phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC) vis-a-vis its ability to bind and degrade beta- catenin. Using a unique combination of loss of function for Shaggy/ GSK- 3 beta and a gain of function for human APC in Drosophila, we show that misexpressed human APC ( hAPC) can still sequester Armadillo/beta- catenin. In addition, human APC could suppress gain of Wnt/ Wingless phenotypes associated with loss of Shaggy/ GSK- 3 beta activity, suggesting that sequestered Armadillo/beta- catenin is non- functional. Based on these studies, we propose that binding per se selleck screening library of b- catenin by APC does not require phosphorylation by GSK- 3 beta.”
“In animal systems, mRNAs subject to posttranscriptional

regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs) often possess multiple binding sites with imperfect complementarity to a given sRNA. In contrast, small RNA-mRNA interactions in bacteria and plants typically involve a single binding site. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the Escherichia coli sRNA SgrS base pairs with a site in the coding region of the first gene of a polycistronic message, manXYZ. This interaction was shown to be responsible for translational repression of manX and to contribute to destabilization of the manXYZ mRNA. In the current study, we report that translational repression of the manY and manZ genes by SgrS requires a second binding site located in the manX-manY intergenic region. Pairing at this site can repress translation of manY and manZ even when mRNA degradation is blocked. Base pairing between SgrS and the manX site does not affect translation of manY or manZ.

We also focus on how purinergic ligands produced and released by

We also focus on how purinergic ligands produced and released by transplanted stem cells can be regarded as ideal candidates to mediate the crosstalk with resident stem cell niches, promoting cell 3 growth and survival, regulating inflammation and, therefore, contributing to local tissue homeostasis and repair.”
“A facile synthetic route to substituted trans-2-arylcyclopropylamines was developed to provide access to mechanism-based this website inhibitors of the human flavoenzyme

oxidase lysine-specific histone demethylase LSD1 and related enzyme family members such as monoamine oxidases A and B. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Uterine Natural Killer (uNK) cells are the most abundant lymphocyte population recruited in the uteri during murine and human pregnancy. Previous investigation on uNK cells during mouse pregnancy focused more on its accumulation in postimplantation periods, which were believed to play important Cl-amidine in vivo roles in regulating trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis towards successful placentation. However, by using recently developed methods of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) lectin, a closer examination during mouse preimplantation revealed that there were also dynamic

regulations of uNK cell, suggesting a major regulation by steroid hormones. Here we provide a detailed examination of uNK cells distribution during mouse early pregnancy by DBA lectin reactivity, with emphasis on preimplantation

period and its hormonal regulation profiles. Our results showed that uNK precursor cells or its cell membrane specific components could be recruited in the uterus by estrogen or/and progesterone, and the effects could be completely abolished by specific antagonists of their nuclear receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptor). These results suggested that the preimplantation uterus, through concerted hormone regulation, could recruit uNK precursor cell or its specific cellular component, Selleck GDC0068 which might be conducive for uterine receptivity and further uNK construction/function during postimplantation.”
“Objectives: To review the safety of embolization in patients affected with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) presenting with diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMS). To correlate the initial presentation and long-term results of embolization according to the distribution of PAVMs.\n\nMaterials and methods: All consecutively treated patients were divided into three groups, according to the involvement of every subsegmental pulmonary artery (group 1), segmental artery (group 2), or both (group 3) of at least one lobe. Age, sex, initial clinical presentation, and Pao(2) were recorded before embolization. Per and postprocedural complications were carefully recorded. Clinical outcome and imaging follow-up were obtained at 6 months and annually thereafter.