So with the

support of Doug McGill, the division chief at

So with the

support of Doug McGill, the division chief at the time, Alan arranged for me to visit laboratories at the NIH, Yale University, and his alma mater, the Rockefeller University. I presented seminars, met people, and talked science with the goal of deciding where I would spend my 2 years as a Mayo Foundation Scholar. The decision turned out to be an easy one. I was Gefitinib price accepted as a Guest Investigator in the Department of Biochemical Cytology at the Rockefeller University, headed by Christian de Duve who had just been awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on cell fractionation and identification of the lysosome In July 1975, I joined de Duve’s laboratory and worked directly with two nurturing senior scientists in de Duve’s group, Miklos Müller and Stanley Fowler. The more exposed I was to cell biology (I audited selective graduate courses at the Rockefeller University), the more I enjoyed research and the more confident I became that I could make a contribution. In part because my work with Alan had

focused on biliary lipid secretion but also because I had published an article on biliary metal secretion,7 I continued to focus my attention NVP-AUY922 datasheet on the liver during the Rockefeller years, basically trying to understand how molecules get into and out of hepatocytes.8 This experience taught me the importance of concentrated, extended research training; by the time I joined the faculty at Mayo, I had had a total of 4 years of full-time research training: two with Alan studying primarily humans, and two at the Rockefeller University, studying primarily cells and organelles. Moreover, I became conversant with a scientific discipline (i.e., cell biology). I emerged from my experience at the Rockefeller University with additional confidence and a perception of myself as a physician-scientist and an epithelial cell biologist. What’s the lesson here for aspiring physician-scientists? Get as much research training 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 as possible with the best people in the best laboratories, and become fully conversant with a scientific discipline. And one more thing:

be willing to take the advice of your mentors! Although Alan was my primary research mentor, I published an article during my NIH fellowship with Bill Summerskill on chronic active hepatitis.9 This experience both exposed me to patients with this condition as well as to a master clinical hepatologist. I found I really liked seeing patients with liver disease, especially if, like Summerskill, I had something substantive to contribute to their care. During my third year of fellowship, which was primarily clinical, I worked almost exclusively with Doug McGill, the Division Chief, who had a practice focused entirely on liver disease. I saw a wide spectrum of liver disease with Doug, and my attraction to clinical hepatology continued to grow.

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