We assessed the characteristics Bafilomycin A1 of successful invaders and the interaction of environmental factors and life-history traits for alien plant species. The vascular plants were recorded from 52 agricultural landscapes in Finland. We compared the traits of native and alien plant species with Fisher’s exact test and used a three table ordination analysis, RLQ analysis, to relate species traits to environmental conditions. Species were clustered according to their position on the RLQ axes, and the clusters were tested for phylogenetic
independence. The successful alien plant species were associated with life form and preferences for moisture and nitrogen, but the trait composition varied according to the habitat type. Two RLQ axes explained 80.5% of the variation, and the species traits were significantly associated with environmental variables. The clustering showed that the occurrence of alien plant species in agricultural habitats was driven by invasion history, traits related to dispersal (dispersal type, seed mass) and habitat preferences, as well as environmental features, such as geographical location, temperature
and the quality and disturbance regime of the habitats. All clusters were phylogenetically non-independent. Thus, the clusters of alien species comprised species of diverse taxonomic affinities, although, they shared the traits explaining their occurrence in particular habitats. This information is useful for understanding the link between species traits and the environmental conditions of the habitats, and complexity of the invasion process.”
“Background: Little VX-680 supplier LCL161 supplier is known about recurrent tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries. The objective
of this study was to determine the probability of TB recurrence and the associated risk factors among cured patients in a city with moderate TB incidence.\n\nMethods: A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was carried out in Barcelona, Spain. All patients with culture-confirmed TB and drug susceptibility testing were included between 1995 and 1997 and followed until December 2005. The authors defined recurrence as a new TB event after a patient was considered cured and had remained free of the disease for a minimum of 1 year. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were used in the statistical analysis. HRs with 95% CIs were calculated.\n\nResults: Among the 681 patients studied, the authors observed 29 recurrences (recurrence rate 0.53/100 person-years of follow-up). The mean incidence of TB in Barcelona from 1995 to 2005 was 36.25 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. The incidence of recurrence was 14.6 times higher in the cohort than the incidence of a first TB episode in the general population. The factors associated with recurrence at bivariate level were being male, being an immigrant, being an intravenous drug user (IDU), having human immunodeficiency virus, smoking, being an alcoholic, being in prison, and having both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB.