, 2008; Li et al., 2009, 2010; Cheung et al., 2011). USA300 strains exhibited enhanced production of dermonecrotic lesions in skin abscess models when compared to HA-MRSA clones (Li et al., 2009, 2010; Cheung et al., 2011), and USA300 was more lethal in a rat model of pneumonia compared with a USA400 isolate (Montgomery et al., 2008). Furthermore, USA300 strains were more lethal in septic infections compared with archaic and Iberian clones as well as ST239 clones (Brazilian clones) (Li et al., 2009). When compared with other CA-MRSA
clones, USA300 isolates generally exhibit increased virulence with the exception of ST80 and USA1000, which also possess enhanced virulence (Li et al., 2010). In contrast, nearly every clone of HA-MRSA tested was significantly less virulent than USA300 with the only exception being USA500 HA-MRSA (Li et al., 2009, 2010). This is Selleck AZD6738 of particular interest in that USA300 clones descended from USA500 via the acquisition of a prophage containing panton-valentine leukotoxin (PVL), a mobile arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and enterotoxins K and Q (see below) (Li et al., 2009). Thus, the source
of USA300 hypervirulence may have originally evolved in the HA-MRSA isolates belonging to USA500. However, for unknown reasons, despite exhibiting hypervirulence in animal infection models, USA500 clones remain relegated to healthcare settings and do not cause significant CA-MRSA disease. Whether CA-MRSA Cell Cycle inhibitor USA300 clones exhibit hypervirulence in human disease has been difficult to directly discern, however, recent population-based clinical data are beginning to corroborate conclusions drawn from laboratory animal model experiments. In humans, USA300 S. aureus primarily causes skin infections of which, it can account for up to 98% of all MRSA presenting as skin/soft tissue infections to US emergency rooms (Talan et al., 2011). In addition, USA300 can also cause more invasive disease such as bacteremia (Seybold et al., 2006), endocarditis (Haque
et al., 2007), and necrotizing fasciitis (Miller et al., 2005), a condition almost never associated with S. aureus. In particular, pulmonary 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase infections caused by USA300 S. aureus can lead to aggressive and often fatal necrotizing pneumonia (Francis et al., 2005; Hageman et al., 2006; Klevens et al., 2007). The populations most at risk for contracting USA300 CA-MRSA are military personnel (Ellis et al., 2009), athletes (Center for Disease Control & Prevention, 2003b, c, 2009b), prisoners (Center for Disease Control & Prevention, 2001, 2003a; Maree et al., 2010), African Americans (Klevens et al., 2007; Kempker et al., 2010), daycare attendees (Buckingham et al., 2004; Kaplan et al., 2005), and men who have sex with men (Sztramko et al., 2007). Patients contracting CA-MRSA are, on average, younger than those with HA-MRSA and otherwise generally healthy (Nair et al., 2011; Whitby et al., 2011). Furthermore, CA-MRSA is often associated with worse clinical outcomes.