It was observed that the CoRuCr intermediate layers provide bette

It was observed that the CoRuCr intermediate layers provide better C-axis orientation than

the Ru intermediate layers. The introduction of oxygen during the deposition of CoRuCr increases the C-axis dispersion slightly but it is still comparable to that of Ru intermediate layer. Grain size and grain size distribution were reduced with CoRuCr-oxide intermediate layers. Magnetic properties were also optimized, indicating that the CoRuCr-oxide intermediate layers are good candidates for perpendicular Fer-1 concentration recording media. (c) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3077203]“
“The fungi, Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 13144) and Penicillium chrysogenium (ATCC 9480) transformed resveratrol (1) to resveratrol-3-O-sulphate (4). The former, in addition, gave 5-methoxyresveratrol-3-O–glucoside (2) with the latter yielding 5-methoxyresveratrol-3-O-sulphate (3). The structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Evaluation of

biological activity of metabolites through GSK1210151A research buy a series of mammalian cell based assays indicated that resveratrol tends to lose its anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-oxidant activities with the substitution of its hydroxyl groups.”
“Background: The causal association between hepatitis virus infections and lichen planus (LP) remains a matter of controversy. Reliable figures for German patients are still lacking.

Patients and Methods: We analyzed the prevalence of serum antibodies against hepatitis B and C viruses p38 MAPK pathway (HBV, HCV) in 265 LP patients and compared the results to 257 patients with

chronic urticaria (URT) and 222 patients with malignant melanoma (MM). Additionally, we analyzed age- and sex-specific differences.

Results: The prevalence of HBV (13.2% or 14.7%) antibodies was significantly higher in patients with LP and URT patients than in the MM control group (HBV: 5.4%, p < 0.001). The prevalence of HCV antibodies among LP and URT patients (2.6% or 0.8%) was not significantly greater (p > 0.05) than in MM patients (0.4%). The prevalences of HBV and HCV in the MM control group were comparable to those in the general German population (HBV: 5-8%, HCV: 0.4-0.7%). An analysis by sub-groups showed that these differences resulted from sex- and age-dependent prevalences. HBV antibodies were significantly more common only in male LP patients (16.1%) and in male (20.0%) and female URT patients (15.6%) aged 31-60 years. The greater prevalence of HCV in female LP patients older than 60 years of age was not significant.

Conclusions: LP is not specifically associated with hepatitis B or C antibodies in the Caucasian population of Germany. The higher prevalences of HBV antibodies found in LP and URT patients may be a reflection of age- and sex- related factors rather than disease-specific exposure to HBV infections.

Limitations of the targeted surveillance program were noted and i

Limitations of the targeted surveillance program were noted and include: (1) a lost contact rate of 32.4%; (2) delays in first surveillance assessment; (3) a large number of children who required on-going

monitoring; and (4) extensive MS-275 inhibitor diagnostic assessments were completed on children with normal hearing. Examination of the lost contact rate revealed indigenous children were more likely to be documented as lost contact. In addition, children with one risk factor only were significantly more likely to not attend a surveillance appointment.

Conclusions: Positive cases of postnatal hearing loss were detected through the targeted surveillance program. However, the limitations of the program question the usefulness of this Cell Cycle inhibitor service delivery model. For targeted surveillance to continue, time frames for assessment, assessments performed, and discharge criteria

need to be revisited. The contribution of individual and combined risk factors in detecting postnatal hearing loss should also be examined in more detail. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The global impetus to identify curative therapies has been fuelled by the unmet needs of patients in the context of a growing heart failure pandemic. To date, regeneration trials in patients with cardiovascular disease have used stem-cell-based therapy in the period immediately after myocardial injury, in an attempt to halt progression towards ischaemic cardiomyopathy, or in the setting of congestive heart failure, to target the disease process

and prevent organ decompensation. Worldwide, several thousand patients have now been treated using autologous cell-based therapy; the safety and feasibility of this approach has been established, pitfalls have GSK2118436 been identified, and optimization procedures envisioned. Furthermore, the initiation of phase III trials to further validate the therapeutic value of cell-based regenerative medicine and address the barriers to successful clinical implementation has led to resurgence in the enthusiasm for such treatments among patients and health-care providers. In particular, poor definition of cell types used, diversity in cell-handling procedures, and functional variability intrinsic to autologously-derived cells have been identified as the main factors limiting adoption of cell-based therapies. In this Review, we summarize the experience obtained from trials of ‘first-generation’ cell-based therapy, and emphasize the advances in the purification and lineage specification of stem cells that have enabled the development of ‘next-generation’ stem-cell-based therapies targeting cardiovascular disease.

The scope of this review encompasses the latest findings that imp

The scope of this review encompasses the latest findings that improve our understanding of the motility disorders associated with colonic dysfunction in both the paediatric and adult population suffering from constipation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Organismal phylogeny depends on cell division, stasis, mutational divergence, cell mergers (by sex or symbiogenesis),

lateral gene transfer and death. The tree of life is a useful metaphor for organismal genealogical history provided we recognize that branches sometimes fuse. Hennigian cladistics emphasizes only lineage splitting, ignoring most other major phylogenetic processes. Though methodologically useful it has been conceptually confusing and harmed taxonomy, especially in mistakenly opposing ancestral (paraphyletic) taxa. The history of life involved about 10 really major innovations in cell structure. In membrane topology, there were five successive kinds of cell: (i) negibacteria, with two bounding membranes, (ii) unibacteria, with one bounding and no internal membranes, (iii) eukaryotes with endomembranes and mitochondria, (iv) plants with chloroplasts and (v) finally, chromists with plastids inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Membrane chemistry

divides negibacteria into the more advanced Glycobacteria (e. g. Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria) with outer membrane lipolysaccharide and primitive Eobacteria without lipopolysaccharide (deserving intenser study). It also divides unibacteria into posibacteria, ancestors learn more of eukaryotes, and archaebacteria-the Adavosertib cell line sisters (not ancestors) of eukaryotes and the youngest bacterial phylum. Anaerobic eobacteria, oxygenic cyanobacteria, desiccation-resistant posibacteria and finally neomura (eukaryotes plus archaebacteria) successively transformed Earth. Accidents and organizational constraints

are as important as adaptiveness in body plan evolution.”
“Electrical transport across pulsed laser deposited zinc oxide (ZnO)/aluminum nitride (AlN)/Si(100) thin film structures has been studied using conducting atomic force microscopy. Current versus voltage spectroscopy performed on the samples with varying AlN layer thickness (t), revealed asymmetric nonlinear behavior with a finite zero current region. The effective barrier height of the system is found to be (similar to 0.2 eV). The width of the zero current region was found to decrease exponentially with respect to t finally attaining the bulk band gap value. Density functional theory based calculations were carried out on the AlN and AlN-ZnO composite surface to investigate the band gap variation and ZnO adsorption on AlN. Results obtained by these calculations are in harmony with the experimental findings. Calculated values of the bulk cohesive energy explain the growth of the ZnO in an axis perpendicular to the surface supporting the experimentally observed results.

In general, the new coordinate

In general, the new coordinate JPH203 supplier system makes an accurate anatomical registration of breasts possible, which suggests its wide applicability wherever 2-D mammogram registration is required.”
“Negative-sense (NS) RNA viruses deliver into cells a mega-dalton RNA-protein complex competent for transcription. Within this complex, the RNA is protected in a nucleocapsid protein

(NP) sheath which the viral polymerase negotiates during RNA synthesis. The NP-RNA templates come as nonsegmented (NNS) or segmented (SNS), necessitating distinct strategies for transcription by their polymerases. Atomic-level understanding of the NP-RNA of both NNS and SNS RNA viruses show that the RNA must be transiently dissociated from NP during RNA synthesis. Here we summarize selleck chemical and compare the polymerases of NNS and SNS RNA viruses, and the current structural data on the polymerases. Those comparisons inform us on the evolution of related RNA synthesis

machines which use two distinct mechanisms for mRNA cap formation.”
“Memory is a reference formed from a past experience that is used to respond to present situations. However, the world is dynamic and situations change, so it is important to update the memory with new information each time it is reactivated in order to adjust the response in the future. Recent researches indicate that memory may undergo a dynamic process that could work as an updating mechanism. This process which is called reconsolidation involves destabilization of the memory after

it is reactivated, followed selleck screening library by restabilization. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the initial destabilization process of reconsolidation requires protein degradation. Using protein degradation inhibition as a method to block reconsolidation, recent researches suggest that reconsolidation, especially the protein degradation-dependent destabilization process is necessary for memory reorganization.”
“OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine whether the MBL2 C(-290) G and G161A, MASP2 A359G, AMELX C287T and C522T, and ENAM C2452T polymorphisms are associated with dental caries.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA of 95 Polish children with ‘higher caries experience’ (HC) and 84 subjects with ‘lower caries experience’ (LC) belonging to two age-groups (5 and 13 years old) was extracted from the buccal mucosa. SNPs were genotyped with PCRRFLP methods.

RESULTS: Among 5-year-old children, we found significantly higher percentage of subjects carrying MBL2 (-290) G allele in HC group compared with LC group (43.2% vs 17.6%, P = 0.023). MBL2 C(-290) G-G161A C-G haplotype was overrepresented in LC group in 5-yearolds (P = 0.01), while the opposite association was observed in 13-year-olds, where C-G was overrepresented in HC group (P = 0.028). In 5-year-old children, the frequency of MBL2 G-G haplotype was higher in HC group compared with LC subjects (P = 0.

There were fewer and smaller afferent vascular buds in the rats o

There were fewer and smaller afferent vascular buds in the rats of the aged group than in the young control group. The ratio of the non-calcified selleck chemicals llc to the calcified layers in the rats of the aged group significantly decreased, compared with that of the young

control group (P < 0.01).

Rats can spontaneously establish intervertebral disc age-related degeneration. The expression of collagen types II and X, numbers and areas of afferent vascular buds, the ratio of the non-calcified to the calcified layers, and water and glycosaminoglycan contents in the nucleus pulposus are sensitive indexes of intervertebral disc degeneration.”
“Background: The development of the fetal endocannabinoid receptor system may be vulnerable to maternal cannabis use during pregnancy and may produce long-term consequences in children. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between gestational cannabis

use and childhood attention problems and aggressive behavior.

Methods: Using a large general population birth cohort, we examined the associations between parental prenatal cannabis and tobacco use and childhood behavior problems at 18 months measured using the Child Behavior Checklist in N=4077 children. Substance use was measured in early pregnancy.

Results: Linear regression analyses demonstrated that gestational exposure to cannabis is associated with behavioral problems in see more early childhood but only in girls AZD0530 datasheet and only in the area of increased aggressive behavior

(B = 2.02; 95% CI: 0.30-3.73; p = 0.02) and attention problems (B = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.46-1.62; p < 0.001). Furthermore, this study showed that long-term (but not short term) tobacco exposure was associated with behavioral problems in girls (B = 1.16; 95% Cl: 0.20-2.12; p = 0.02). There was no association between cannabis use of the father and child behavior problems.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that intrauterine exposure to cannabis is associated with an increased risk for aggressive behavior and attention problems as early as 18 months of age in girls, but not boys. Further research is needed to explore the association between prenatal cannabis exposure and child behavior at later ages. Our data support educating future mothers about the risk to their babies should they smoke cannabis during pregnancy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In the present investigation, polysulfone (PSu) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by solvent casting method. Layered silicates, viz., sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT), Cloisite 93A, and Cloisite 30B were dispersed in PSu to obtain nanocomposite membranes. PSu nanocomposite membranes were tested for mechanical performance, water uptake, thermal properties, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

“In this paper we used a general stochastic processes fram

“In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence rate function that characterizes epidemic models. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche’s (LHD) incidence rate function, which results

from modeling the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the JNJ-26481585 solubility dmso per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS model with both the classical and the LHD incidence rate functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR model with both incidence rate functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the model with the LHD incidence rate may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied ISRIB here. First, our model was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS model with

classical incidence rate predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS model with LHD incidence rate will reach either the disease free Vorinostat solubility dmso equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the models’ Poincare map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics.”
“Chinese Erhualian boars have dramatically smaller testes, greater concentrations of circulating androgens, and fewer Sertoli cells than Western commercial breeds. To identify QTL for boar reproductive traits, testicular weight, epididymal weight, seminiferous tubular diameter at 90 and 300 d, and serum testosterone concentration

at 300 d were measured in 347 F(2) boars from a White Duroc x Chinese Erhualian cross. A whole genome scan was performed with 183 microsatellites covering 19 porcine chromosomes. A total of 16 QTL were identified on 9 chromosomes, including 1% genome-wide significant QTL for testicular weight at 90 and 300 d and seminiferous tubular diameter at 90 d on SSCX, and for epididymal weight and testosterone concentration at 300 d on SSC7. Two 5% genome-wide significant QTL were detected for testicular weight at 300 d on SSC1 and seminiferous tubular diameter at 300 d on SSC16. Nine suggestive QTL were found on SSC1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, and 14. Chinese Erhualian alleles were not systematically favorable for greater reproductive performance.

Among the five cultivated species, Capsicum chinense is one of th

Among the five cultivated species, Capsicum chinense is one of the most popular, being native to the Amazon basin. This species is characterized

by a wide variety of fruit sizes, shapes and colors, with different capsaicinoid content. In addition, fruits are rich in vitamins A and C. Despite the importance of this plant as a spice and its medicinal uses, research on its genetic variability and potential for breeding programs is still incipient. We investigated the genetic control of some traits through diallel analysis with the objective of introgressing these traits into cultivated varieties. For the diallel analysis, the progeny of crosses between peppers with pungent and sweet fruits, together with the parents, were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The fruits Selleckchem Ilomastat were harvested and analyzed for the traits total fresh fruit mass, total dry fruit mass, percentage dry matter, total soluble solids, vitamin C content, fruit pungency, and number of seeds per fruit. Genetic variability was detected for all traits. In the diallel analysis, DMXAA the additive-dominant model was considered to be adequate for total fresh fruit mass, percentage dry matter, total soluble solids, and vitamin C content. Additive genetic effects and dominance were found for

all traits; consequently, breeding for improvement of these fruit traits would be viable.”
“The study of gravitropic movements in plants has enjoyed a long history of research

going back to the pioneering works of the 19th century and the Selleck Wnt inhibitor famous book entitled ‘The power of movement in plants’ by Charles and Francis Darwin. Over the last few decades, the emphasis has shifted towards the cellular and molecular biology of gravisensing and the onset of auxin gradients across the organs. However, our understanding of plant movement cannot be completed before quantifying spatio-temporal changes in curvature and how they are produced through the motor process of active bending and controlled by gravisensing. This review sets out to show how combining approaches borrowed from continuum mechanics (kinematic imaging, structural modelling) with approaches from physiology and modern molecular biology has made it possible to generate integrative biomechanical models of the processes involved in gravitropism at several levels. The physiological and biomechanical bases are reviewed and two of the most complete integrative models of the gravireaction organ available are then compared, highlighting how the comparison between movements driven by differential growth and movements driven by reaction wood formation in woody organs has provided highly informative key insights.

Observations in this study confirm these trends In addition, the

Observations in this study confirm these trends. In addition, the emulsifier has been found to enhance the interparticle attraction. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 3605-3609, 2010″
“Objective: To investigate whether Escherichia coli bacteriuria is associated with the development of hypertension during a long-term follow-up.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed among the participants of two population-based studies. Between 1974 and 1986 all women 4SC-202 ic50 aged 39 to 68 years old, who lived in Utrecht, the Netherlands, were invited to participate in a breast cancer screening program. The participants completed

a questionnaire, underwent a medical examination, and collected a morning urine sample that remained stored. From 1993 to 1997 another

population-based study was performed. We performed a full cohort analysis for 444 women who participated in this website both studies. E. coli bacteriuria was diagnosed by a real-time PCR. Hypertension was defined as the use of antihypertensive medication and/or a measured systolic blood pressure of at least 160 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure of 95 mmHg or higher. The mean follow-up was 11.5 +/- 1.7 years.

Results: Forty women (9%) had E. coli bacteriuria at baseline. Women who had bacteriuria at baseline had a mean blood pressure at study endpoint of 133 +/- 20 mmHg systolic and 78 +/- 11 mmHg diastolic, and women without bacteriuria had values of 129 +/- 20 and 78 +/- 11 mmHg, respectively (p-values for difference 0.33 and 0.88). Although E. coli bacteriuria was not associated with the blood pressure as a continuous variable, it was associated with the development of hypertension during follow-up (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.5).

Conclusion: E. coli bacteriuria may increase the risk of future hypertension. (C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

learn more To increase our knowledge of how nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP); and whether they find it difficult to distinguish BTCP from background pain; how they estimate the impact of BTCP on patients’ daily lives, and the factors that nurses consider to induce BTCP. Variations in their use of assessment tools and their ability to distinguish between different types of pain were also examined in terms of the number of years of oncology nursing experience and the practice in different countries.

Methods: In total, 1241 nurses (90% female) who care for patients with cancer, from 12 European countries, completed a survey questionnaire.

Key results: Half the sample had >9 years of experience in oncology nursing. Although 39% had no pain assessment tool to help them distinguish between types of pain, 95% of those who used a tool found it useful. Furthermore, 37% reported that they had problems distinguishing background pain from BTCP. Movement was identified as the factor that most commonly exacerbated BTCP across all countries.


The study group included all women who had a vagi


The study group included all women who had a vaginal delivery complicated by 34DPT (2000-2012, N = 356) and subsequently delivered again in the same medical center (N = 204). The rate of recurrence of 34DPT was compared with a control group of women who had a previous vaginal delivery not complicated by 34DPT (N = 58 581) and had a subsequent delivery in the same time period (N = 23 045).

Results: Women in the past-34DPT group had a higher rate of CS (18.6% versus 10.1%, p < 0.001), fetal head in occiput-posterior position (POP; 2.5% versus 0.7%, p = 0.004) and mediolateral episiotomy (25.5% versus 19.4%, p = 0.03). Women in the past-34DPT group had a higher rate of 34DPT in the subsequent delivery (2.0% versus 0.3%, p < 0.001). The rate of recurrence of 34DPT was considerably PD173074 concentration higher among women with past fourth-degree tear versus women with past third-degree tear (22.2% versus 1.0%, p < 0.001). 34DPT in previous pregnancy is independently associated with increased risk of 34DPT in subsequent delivery (OR = 4.6, 95%-CI 1.3-15.3).

Conclusion: Women who experienced 34DPT in their previous pregnancy have an increased risk Kinase Inhibitor Library supplier for recurrence of 34DPT in subsequent pregnancy, especially in cases of past fourth-degree tears.”
“Two new aporphine alkaloids: 8-hydroxy-9-methoxy-1,2-methylenedioxyaporphine (1) and 8-hydroxy-3,9-dimethoxy-1,2-methylenedioxyaporphine

(2) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Fissistigma poilanei along with five known compounds: oxocrebanine (3), kuafumine (4), (2R, 3R)-3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (5), (+)-catechin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (6) and quercetine 3,7-dimethoxy-3′-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). These two new aporphine alkaloids exhibited a moderate cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines

(KB, Hep-G2, MCF-7, LU) as well as antimicrobial activity against Lactobacillus fermentum, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtillis.”
“Low levels of virus contamination and naturally occurring reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) inhibitors restrain virus detection in oysters. A rapid and efficient LGX818 manufacturer oyster-processing procedure that can be used for sensitive virus detection in oysters was developed. Poliovirus type I Sabin strain was used to evaluate the efficacy of virus recovery. The procedure included (a) acid-adsorption and elution with buffers (0.25 M glycine-0.14 M NaCl, pH 7.5; 0.25 M threonine-0.14 M NaCl, pH 7.5); (b) polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation; (c) resuspension in Tween 80/Tris solution and chloroform extraction; (d) the second PEG precipitation; (e) viral RNA extraction with TRIzol and isopropanol precipitation; and (f) RT-PCR combined with semi-nested PCR.

A linear classifier was then applied to these projections to disc

A linear classifier was then applied to these projections to discriminate between the simulated exposure patterns, and the accuracy of classified realizations was determined.

Results: C-EVA classified exposures more correctly

than univariate and multivariate EVA approaches; classification accuracy was 49%, 47% and LBH589 datasheet 52% for EVA (univariate and multivariate), and C-EVA, respectively (p < 0.001). All three methods performed poorly in discriminating exposure patterns differing with respect to the variability in cycle time duration.

Conclusion: While C-EVA had a higher accuracy than conventional EVA, both failed to detect differences in temporal similarity. The data-driven optimality of data reduction and the capability of handling multiple exposure time AS1842856 chemical structure lines in a single analysis are the advantages of the C-EVA.”
“A new steroidal glycoside (1), (25R)-14 alpha, 17 alpha-hydroxyspirost-5-en-3 beta-yl 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnpyranosyl-(1 -> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, together with three known steroidal glycosides, (25R)-3 beta-hydroxyspirost-5-en-1 beta-yl-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -> 2)-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), Cixi-ophiopogon B (3) and Cixiophiopogon A (4),

were obtained from the tuberous roots of Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae). Compound 2 was isolated from the Ophiopogon genus for the first time. Their structures were identified on the basis of extensive mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis.”
“Several models of heading detection during smooth pursuit rely

on the assumption of local constraint line tuning to exist in large scale motion detection templates. A motion detector that exhibits pure constraint line tuning responds maximally to any 2D-velocity in the set of vectors that can be decomposed into the central, or classic, preferred velocity (the shortest vector that still yields the maximum response) HDAC inhibitor and any vector orthogonal to that. To test this assumption, we measured the firing rates of isolated middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) neurons to random dot stimuli moving in a range of directions and speeds. We found that as a function of 2D velocity, the pooled responses were best fit with a 2D Gaussian profile with a factor of elongation, orthogonal to the central preferred velocity, of roughly 1.5 for MST and 1.7 for MT. This means that MT and MST cells are more sharply tuned for speed than they are for direction; and that they indeed show some level of constraint line tuning. However, we argue that the observed elongation is insufficient to achieve behavioral heading discrimination accuracy on the order of 1-2 degrees as reported before.”
“Two new flavone derivatives (1 and 2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Macrothelypteris torresiana, along with four known flavonoids: protoapigenin, apigenin, kaempferol and quercetin.