unkrauttagung.de 7th INTERNATIONAL IPM SYMPOSIUM 2012 – March USA, in planning phase E. WolffE-mail: [email protected]
*8th CONGRESO ARGENTINO DE ENTOMOLOGIA 17–20 AprilBariloche, ARGENTINA Info: http://tinyurl.con/659gqpz VI INTERNATIONAL WEED SCIENCE CONGRESS 17–22 JuneDynamic Weeds, Diverse Solutions, Hangzhou CHINA H.J. Huang, IPP, CAAS, No. 2 West Yuanmingyuan Rd., Beijing 100193, CHINA Fax/voice: 86-10-628-15937 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.iwss.info/coming_events.asp 2nd MEETING OF THE TEPHRID WORKERS OF EUROPE AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 02–06 July Kolymbari Crete, GREECE Info: [email protected] 2nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM–TEPHRITID WORKERS OF EUROPE, AFRICA, AND ZD1839 molecular weight THE MIDDLE EAST 03–06 July Kolymbari, Crete, Selumetinib nmr GREECE N. Papadopoulos E-mail: [email protected]: www.diptera.info/news.php *8th MEETING OF TEPHRID WORKERS OF THE
WESTERN HEMISPHERE 30 July–03 AugustPanama City, PANAMA Info: www.8twwh.org *JOINT MEETING ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETIES OF CANADA and ALBERTA 04–07 NovemberEdmonton, ALB, CANADA Info: www.esc-sec.ca/annmeet.html 2013 INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE RESISTANCE CONFERENCE 18–22 February Perth, AUSTRALIA S. Powles, AHRI, School of Plant Biol., Univ. of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy., Crawley, Perth 6009, WA, AUSTRALIA Fax: 61-8-6488-7834 Voice: 61-8-6488-7870 E-mail: [email protected] AMERICAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOCIETY ANNUAL MEETING 10–14 August Providence, RI, USA Info: APS, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121, USAFax: 1-651-454-0755 Voice: 1-651-454-3848 E-mail: [email protected] about Web: www.apsnet.org Full-size table Table options
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“Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects approximately 10%−15% of the population in Western countries.1 IBS is characterized by recurrent abdominal discomfort and pain associated with altered bowel habits.2 Currently, IBS subtypes are determined by stool consistency pattern and include diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation , or mixed constipation and diarrhea. IBS can negatively impact an individual’s quality of life and results in significant direct and indirect costs.3 Current safe and effective pharmacologic treatments for IBS-D are limited and include antispasmodics, antidepressants, antidiarrheal agents, and alosetron.4 Opioid receptors, including μ, δ, and κ, are expressed along the gastrointestinal tract and play a key role in regulating gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and visceral sensation.5 and 6 Exogenous opioids reduce gastrointestinal transit through activation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and can treat diarrhea in acute situations.7 Agents that simultaneously activate MOR and antagonize δ-opioid receptor (DOR) have differential gastrointestinal effects and can possess increased analgesic potency compared with pure MOR agonists.