unkrauttagung de 7th INTERNATIONAL IPM SYMPOSIUM 2012 – March USA

unkrauttagung.de 7th INTERNATIONAL IPM SYMPOSIUM 2012 – March USA, in planning phase E. WolffE-mail: [email protected]

*8th CONGRESO ARGENTINO DE ENTOMOLOGIA 17–20 AprilBariloche, ARGENTINA Info: http://tinyurl.con/659gqpz VI INTERNATIONAL WEED SCIENCE CONGRESS 17–22 JuneDynamic Weeds, Diverse Solutions, Hangzhou CHINA H.J. Huang, IPP, CAAS, No. 2 West Yuanmingyuan Rd., Beijing 100193, CHINA Fax/voice: 86-10-628-15937 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.iwss.info/coming_events.asp 2nd MEETING OF THE TEPHRID WORKERS OF EUROPE AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 02–06 July Kolymbari Crete, GREECE Info: [email protected] 2nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM–TEPHRITID WORKERS OF EUROPE, AFRICA, AND ZD1839 molecular weight THE MIDDLE EAST 03–06 July Kolymbari, Crete, Selumetinib nmr GREECE N. Papadopoulos E-mail: [email protected]: www.diptera.info/news.php *8th MEETING OF TEPHRID WORKERS OF THE

WESTERN HEMISPHERE 30 July–03 AugustPanama City, PANAMA Info: www.8twwh.org *JOINT MEETING ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETIES OF CANADA and ALBERTA 04–07 NovemberEdmonton, ALB, CANADA Info: www.esc-sec.ca/annmeet.html 2013 INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE RESISTANCE CONFERENCE 18–22 February Perth, AUSTRALIA S. Powles, AHRI, School of Plant Biol., Univ. of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy., Crawley, Perth 6009, WA, AUSTRALIA Fax: 61-8-6488-7834 Voice: 61-8-6488-7870 E-mail: [email protected] AMERICAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOCIETY ANNUAL MEETING 10–14 August Providence, RI, USA Info: APS, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121, USAFax: 1-651-454-0755 Voice: 1-651-454-3848 E-mail: [email protected] about Web: www.apsnet.org Full-size table Table options

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“Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects approximately 10%−15% of the population in Western countries.1 IBS is characterized by recurrent abdominal discomfort and pain associated with altered bowel habits.2 Currently, IBS subtypes are determined by stool consistency pattern and include diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation , or mixed constipation and diarrhea. IBS can negatively impact an individual’s quality of life and results in significant direct and indirect costs.3 Current safe and effective pharmacologic treatments for IBS-D are limited and include antispasmodics, antidepressants, antidiarrheal agents, and alosetron.4 Opioid receptors, including μ, δ, and κ, are expressed along the gastrointestinal tract and play a key role in regulating gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and visceral sensation.5 and 6 Exogenous opioids reduce gastrointestinal transit through activation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and can treat diarrhea in acute situations.7 Agents that simultaneously activate MOR and antagonize δ-opioid receptor (DOR) have differential gastrointestinal effects and can possess increased analgesic potency compared with pure MOR agonists.

, Korea) and acclimated to the laboratory condition in a specific

, Korea) and acclimated to the laboratory condition in a specific-pathogen-free barrier area where the temperature (22 ± 1 °C) and humidity (55%) were controlled constantly with a 12/12 h light/dark cycle (lights-on at 07:00 AM). Rats had ad libitum access to standard laboratory food (Purina Rodent Chow, Purina Co., Seoul, Korea) and tap water. All rats were habituated in the animal colonies at least for a week and were cared according to the Guideline for Animal MAPK inhibitor Experiments, 2000, edited by the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences, which is consistent with the NIH Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, revised 1996.

All animal protocols were approved by the Committee for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals at Seoul National University. Rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a 4:1 mixture of ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg, Ketara®, Yuhan, Korea) and xylazine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg, Rumpun®, Bayer,

Korea), and placed on the surgical plate equipped with a non-traumatic head holder. The surgical field was prepared selleck products by hair trimming and applying 10% povidone iodine, and then, a ventral–medial incision was made in the neck. Digastric and masseter muscles were bluntly dissected to allow the visualization of the chorda tympani nerve and lingual nerve as it bifurcated from the lingual branch of the trigeminal nerve. Transection of the lingual and chorda tympani nerve (Nx) was made using sharp microfine Dichloromethane dehalogenase forceps; the proximal and distal stumps of the nerve cuts were visualized to verify complete transection. The wound was closed in a single layer by the use of 4-0 Nylon sutures (Ethicon®, UK). Sham surgeries were processed in an identical manner, but the nerves were not touched. Body weight gain and food intake were monitored during the post-operational

recovery period. Sucrose drinking test was performed after 10 days of post-operational recovery. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6–8 in each group, total 28 rats); i.e., Nx groups that received either 1% or 5% sucrose and sham operated groups that received either 1% or 5% sucrose. Rats in each group were deprived from water, but not chow, for 20 h prior to the drinking test, and received free choices of sucrose solution and water for 30 min. The test sessions were repeated for 3 consecutive days, and the positions of sucrose and water bottles were exchanged daily. Another groups of Nx and sham operated rats (n = 6 in each group, total 12 rats) were subjected to the ambulatory test at 20 days after the surgery. On each trial, the rat was placed in the centre of the activity chamber (43.2 cm in length, 42.2 cm in width, and 30.5 cm in height, MED Associates, VT, USA), a transparent acryl chamber equipped with two horizontal planes of 16 infrared photocell-detector pairs placed in x, y dimension, spaced 2.5 cm apart, and its ambulatory activity was monitored by the computerized system for 30 min.

elegans learning and memory ( Figure

1) Neuropeptides ca

elegans learning and memory ( Figure

1). Neuropeptides can function as direct or indirect modulators of synaptic output, as primary neuronal signaling molecules, or in a neuroendocrine fashion. Like small neurotransmitters, neuropeptides play key roles RG7420 research buy in a wide variety of processes, and their role in learning and memory is an emerging trend. It is predicted that the C. elegans genome has 119 neuropeptide precursor genes that are processed into over 250 peptides. These can be categorized into three groups: 1) the insulin-like peptides with 40 members; 2) the FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide)-like peptide (flp) family with 31; and 3) the 48 general neuropeptide-like protein (nlp) genes whose only unifying characteristic is that they are this website unlike the previous two families [7•]. In addition to the receptor tyrosine kinase insulin/IGF receptors encoded by daf-2, there are an estimated

128 neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptors, the majority of which remain functionally uncharacterized and orphaned. By reviewing recent findings for the role of neuropeptides in learning and memory we hope to highlight the advantages of behavioral genetics research in C. elegans ( Table 1). Zhang et al. [8] demonstrated that C. elegans can learn to avoid odorants released by strains of pathogenic bacteria, and to prefer odors released by non-pathogenic strains. Serotonin released from the chemosensory neuron ADF acts on various interneurons to associate infection with specific bacteria [8]. The target of the ADF serotonin signal HSP90 is the serotonin-gated chloride channel MOD-1 [8]. Using known promoters to selectively express MOD-1 in specific neurons of MOD-1 defective mutants, Zhang

et al. [8] demonstrated that MOD-1 functions in several interneurons to modulate aversive learning. In a recent series of experiments, Chen et al. [9••] examined the potential role of insulin-like peptides (ILPs) in learned aversion to attractive pathogenic bacteria using strains with reduction of function alleles for the gene encoding the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, DAF-2. These mutants were defective in learning to avoid the smell of pathogenic bacteria [9••]. Learning was also disrupted by a semi-dominant mutation in ILP DAF-28 [9••]. DAF-28 has previously been shown to disrupt its own synthesis, as well as the synthesis of structurally related peptides expressed in the same cell [10]. After ruling out a role for DAF-28, further mutant analysis implicated the ILPs INS-6 and INS-7 as influential paracrine mediators of learned aversion to pathogens [9••]. Specifically, a learning deficit caused by loss of ins-6 could be suppressed by loss of ins-7 [9••]. Neuron specific rescue studies revealed that INS-6 is released from ASI sensory neurons to repress transcription of learning-inhibitory INS-7 [9••]. In ins-6 mutants, URX-generated INS-7 disrupts learning via the DAF-2 receptor on the RIA interneurons of the learning circuit [9••].

In order to ensure Yemen׳s commitment, the fisheries act is suppo

In order to ensure Yemen׳s commitment, the fisheries act is supposed to make the necessary amendments in the fisheries

governing laws to meet these emerging fisheries policies. It is necessary that the fisheries law be broadly based on the precautionary approach, BIRB 796 in vivo particularly in the case of least developed countries such as Yemen where the status of most fish stocks is unknown and funds for research are lacking. During the last two decades, aquaculture development, though stressed in policy, did not make any progress and the lack of aquaculture legislative framework has been one of the major obstacles to aquaculture development. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate these obstacles and make the necessary legislative and regulatory reforms to address these issues. Enforcement of

regulations by the enforcement authorities is weak, which results in fishermen having a low compliance with regulations. Compliance and enforcement tools prescribed by the law include instruments for both artisanal and industrial fisheries. In the artisanal sector, monitoring is restricted to random dockside inspection and routine inspection at landing sites, although inspection is not strictly enforced. On-land enforcement tools include on-land observers and quality observers. The tasks allocated to the on-land observers include reporting of illegal fishing gear, reporting of unlicensed fishing boats, illegal fishing during the closed seasons,

capture of illegal species or sizes, unloading at unofficial landing sites, reporting of illegal means of transporting fish, and reporting of any violations Apoptosis inhibitor to the laws and regulations of the fishery. Compliance and enforcement tools within the industrial fisheries include the requirement of the coastal and industrial boats to take onboard 2–4 observers, the use of Amylase Vessel Monitoring System, the real-time reporting of catches at sea, and the unloading of fish should be at specified ports in Yemen. Coastal and industrial boats are required to keep logbooks, in the format specified by the MFW, to record the catch in terms of species and quantity, the coordinates of each of the fishing locations, and the depths and times spent fishing. However, logbooks are not used with the artisanal boats, even though the law entitles the MFW to ask artisanal boats larger than 15 m to keep logbooks to record the specifications of the catch. Enforcement incentives provided for in the law are generally low and lack publicity. The law has specified a reward, 10% of the reported infringement, for any person detected and reported any violations to the laws and regulations of the fishery. However, reporting of violations still occurs infrequently, in part due to the lack of publicity of these rewards and a lack of trust in competent authorities. The penalties are sometimes not severe enough to ensure compliance with and enforcement of regulations.

The interview builds on information already collected as part of

The interview builds on information already collected as part of the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0–Section F (Preferences for Customary Routine and Activities)11, by adding follow-up questions that ask residents how satisfied they are with fulfillment of important preferences. The second component is a preprogrammed Excel workbook, where staff can enter information from interviews. This workbook produces color-coded

graphic displays showing when a resident’s preferences are being fully met (in green) and when preferences require follow-up (in yellow or red). Also, the Excel workbook can show preference gaps affecting many persons residing together in a household, floor, or unit. The output allows staff to see at a glance particular preferences that are not being met for several individuals living in a common location. Staff can Osimertinib solubility dmso use the results as the basis for discussion and problem solving during individual care planning conferences as well as to develop broader strategies for improvement. An additional feature of the Excel workbook is that it automatically calculates 4 PCC quality indicators. One measure shows the percentage of “preference congruence”—defined as the extent to which a resident is satisfied with the way important preferences are met—for an individual, household or NH as a whole during a given month. Three other measures show the percentage

of care conferences attended by residents, family or friends, and direct care workers in a 1-month period. The toolkit includes an implementation guide and Selleckchem LY294002 Janus kinase (JAK) background

papers for communities interested in enhancing PCC practices. The purpose of this article is to report on the development of the concept of preference congruence among NH residents (phase 1), its refinement into a set of quality indicators (phase 2), and its pilot evaluation in a sample of 12 early adopting NHs prior to national rollout (phase 3). In 2009, the Polisher Research Institute (PRI) team sought to develop a measure of preference congruence among NH residents. The project was based on the concept that having an accurate knowledge of resident preferences is a cornerstone of PCC. Once a person’s preferences are known, it is important for a provider to understand whether these preferences are being fulfilled. Satisfaction ratings are one of the most commonly used methods of assessing perceptions of the quality of care in health care and NH settings.12 and 13 Preference congruence is a measure that results from asking residents how satisfied they are in the fulfillment of preferences they have indicated are important to them. The research team tested the preference congruence measure in a convenience sample of residents in a suburban NH in Philadelphia, PA (n = 12) and in a Western New York Veterans Administration Community Living Center (n = 11).

Among 73 taxa, 31 belonged to green-algae, 10 to diatoms and 8 to

Among 73 taxa, 31 belonged to green-algae, 10 to diatoms and 8 to cyanobacteria. The dominance of the phytoplankton biomass by diatoms was noticeable at this

station as well. They constituted 47% of the total phytoplankton biomass, including undefined Centrales 10–60 μm in diameter (36%), Actinocyclus octonarius var. octonarius (6%), C. meneghiniana (3%). Cryptophyceae constituted 22%, including Teleaulax spp. (15%) and Plagioselmis prolonga (7%), green-algae made up 18%, including the most frequent species Pediastrum boryanum (5%), and dinoflagellates contributed 6%, including the most frequent Ibrutinib genus Protoperidinium (5%). Stations E54 and E62 had the highest proportion of decomposed chlorophyll a relative to intact chlorophyll a (phaeopigment/chlorophyll a ratio), which indicated accelerated phytoplankton decomposition ( Figure 3). All the seawater stations (E53, E54 and E62) were similar in terms of phytoplankton diversity. The Trichostatin A nmr number of taxa was low (28–37), and the biomass was dominated by diatoms (63–90%) and Cryptophyceae (5–16%), while only a few cyanobacteria species were observed. The diatom Coscinodiscus sp. was the main component

at station E54, constituting 88% of the whole phytoplankton biomass there. At stations E53 and E62 this diatom was less abundant ( Figure 2); A. octonarius var. octonarius (4–57%), the Cryptophyceae Teleaulax spp. (11%) and P. prolonga (4–5%), as well as the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (4%) contributed to the biomass of phytoplankton. The clone library (station E54) contained, besides bacterioplankton, some eukaryotic sequences, mostly of phytoplankton: 7 Chlorophyta, 6 Stramenopiles, 1 Haptophyceae and 1 Alveolata. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene diversity illustrated the differences in bacterial communities among the sampling sites. Each terminal restriction fragment (TRF) represents an operational taxonomic unit (OTU). The presence of TRFs in a sample and their relative

abundance are indications of differences between bacterial communities. Overall, 232 terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were identified, with 52–95 TRFs (median 75 TRFs) per individual sample. We statistically analysed the presence and relative abundance of TRFs and investigated environmental parameters to gain further insights Dapagliflozin into the ecosystem. The nMDS, CCA and PCA analyses suggested a separation of bacterio-plankton communities into populations inhabiting the inner part of the gulf (E53, ZN2) and the outer part of the gulf together with the open sea (E54, E62) (Figure 5, see page 836). The Kiezmark station was excluded from the statistical analysis, because the biological and environmental parameters there had much higher values. CCA explained 77% of the variability (inertia of total variance = 1.3483, inertia of the first two constrained axes = 1.0441) and PCA 63.2% (34.

, 2012) The LLOQ’s (lower limit of quantification) were respecti

, 2012). The LLOQ’s (lower limit of quantification) were respectively 0.5 (Lab I), 4.0 (Lab II) and 2.0 (Lab III) pmol/g globin. When receiving the results from the labs at the end of July, some CEV concentrations

showed to be strongly increased (>1000 pmol/g globin, see further). To verify the results, we decided to carry out an extra inter-laboratory performance test at that moment. Therefore, 10 samples per laboratory were chosen, i.e. the 5 highest concentrations and 5 randomly lower concentrations. The 10 samples of the Lab I batch were sent to Lab II, the 10 samples of the Lab II batch were sent to Lab III, and finally, the 10 samples of the Lab III batch were sent to Lab I. Table 2 presents the CEV concentrations as measured on the sampling date and, for each pair of samples, the Q-scores ( Hund et al., 2000). The Q-scores were calculated by the following formula: Q-scorei=(lab specific measurei−mean of measurei)mean of measurei Q-scores Dabrafenib in vitro may be used as an alternative type

of score in case z-scores cannot be calculated because the true value of the sample is unknown, as is the case in this additional inter-laboratory study. These Q-scores were then included in one-way ANOVAs with and without the factor ‘laboratory’. The one-way ANOVA including the factor ‘laboratory’ showed IGF-1R inhibitor a residual standard deviation of 6.5%. This is the best estimation of the mean standard deviation within a laboratory. The one-way ANOVA without the factor ‘laboratory’ showed a residual standard deviation of 11%. This is the best estimate for the total standard

deviation due to inter-and intra-laboratory variance. As may be observed from Table 2, the additional inter-laboratory test revealed comparable results. Smokers and non-smokers were identified based on cotinine in urine samples (De Cremer et al., 2013) and using a cut-off of 100 μg/L (Benowitz, 1996). Table 3 depicts the results. Seventy-four participants were categorized as ‘smokers’ and 168 were categorized as ‘non-smokers’. This categorization was consistent with the reported (non-) smoking behaviour of the participants. While the proportion ‘smokers’ in the subgroups of the EZ (‘EZ1’, ‘EZ2 Emerg’ and ‘EZ2 Evac’) lay between 23.1 and 29.8%, it was 42.2% in the residents outside the EZ that had visited the emergency services (group ‘Controls’). Consistent with this ADAMTS5 observation, the median urinary cotinine levels were markedly higher in smokers of the ‘Controls’ group (median: 1654 μg/L, IQR between 1224 and 2062 μg/L) when compared to smokers of the EZ (median: 1154 μg/L, IQR between 660 and 1439 μg/L) (data not shown). CEV concentrations as measured in the blood were extrapolated back to the concentration that was to be expected at the time of the accident, i.e. May 4. Taking into account the average lifecycle of erythrocytes of 126 days, CEV values following a single exposure will decrease daily 1/126th (or 0.

In short, livelihood and socio-economic outcomes from MPAs vary w

In short, livelihood and socio-economic outcomes from MPAs vary widely and can range from very positive to very negative depending on the context and inputs. In order for MPAs to be successful over the long-term, both substantive outcomes and procedural inputs need to be taken into account. One shortcoming of much prior research on MPA effectiveness is that outcomes are measured without adequate information about whether or which management actions are being taken. Achieving Docetaxel cell line outcomes requires attention to three categories of inputs: governance,

management and local development. Why these three categories? First, they correspond with three complementary but distinct strands of literature on creating effective PAs and MPAs. All three categories are important considerations to ensure the longevity, and thus effectiveness of MPAs [9] and [101]. Second, governance and local development considerations are often encompassed conceptually under management, which is problematic for several reasons: (a) subsuming governance or development under the auspices of management does not do justice to the full complexity of governance selleck chemicals or development processes; (b) different individuals or organizations may be better positioned – in terms of knowledge, skills, and affiliations – to

address each category of inputs (e.g., managers may not have the training or skills to support development initiatives); and, (c) governance is an umbrella term which refers to the institutions, structures and processes which determine how and whether management can function effectively to address societal or environmental issues whereas management is the “resources, plans, and actions that are a product of applied governance” [102].

A more in depth discussion of governance is provided in Section 3.2. Third, there are inherent feedbacks between the three categories of inputs (Fig. 2). The relationship between environmental conservation cum management Urease and local livelihoods and socio-economics is not linear with improvements in one resulting in the other (or vice versa). The interdependency between conservation and local development demands that both are addressed simultaneously while also confronting procedural or governance considerations. Governance institutions and processes, for example, provide a supportive policy environment for effective management and enable the achievement of beneficial development outcomes. Governors, which refers to the individuals who are responsible for creating legislation, policy and institutions, are also responsible for establishing “good” procedures – fair, equitable, participatory, legitimate, transparent, accountable, integrated, adaptable – for development and management. Successful development is important as it provides the finances needed for both governance and management, engenders support for MPA management, and contributes to the effectiveness and sustainability of governance structures.

5 ms In UTE, the TE is defined as the time between the end of th

5 ms. In UTE, the TE is defined as the time between the end of the r.f. pulse and the beginning

of the data acquisition, a center-out trajectory is used hence the TE can be short. Typically a TE of 100–250 μs is used, however times as short as 8 μs have been reported [6]. The implementation of the sequence can be separated into two key areas: (i) the implementation of slice selection and (ii) the image reconstruction. Each of these aspects of the UTE sequence will be affected by the particular hardware used. In the following we discuss both aspects of UTE and present a simple technique http://www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-765.html to visualize the slice excitation profile. The r.f. and gradient shape must be well matched to ensure accurate slice selection. Here, the slice select gradient is AZD2014 ramped down from constant strength to zero over a few microseconds. The r.f. pulse for UTE excitation was reshaped to match the gradient using VERSE

[26]. To apply VERSE, the center point of the gradient ramp is placed at the original end point of the half Gaussian r.f. pulse. The VERSE principle is then used to reshape the r.f. pulse to match the ramped switch off of the slice gradient. The r.f. pulse is scaled such that the area of the new pulse shape is equivalent to that of the original half Gaussian r.f. pulse. The use of VERSE compensates for the limited slew rate achievable by the gradient amplifiers and helps to ensure accurate slice selection. For the experiments shown here, the gradient pulse was defined with a 50 μs linear ramp from the constant value to zero and the r.f. ramp down time was therefore set to match this. The oscilloscope can be used to measure the output gradient shape from the amplifiers; however, there

is still some variation between the amplifiers and the gradient input to the sample. It is therefore desirable to measure the applied gradient directly. Here, the applied gradient is measured using the technique of Duyn et al. [32]. The sequence measures the phase change across a thin slice in a homogeneous sample. This phase change corresponds to a direct measurement of position in k-space. The derivative of the measured phase change however provides the strength of the gradient that is produced by the gradient coil as a function of time. Using measurements of the gradient, the shape of the gradient is corrected using a method known as gradient pre-equalization [22]. The method is outlined in Fig. 2. Initially, the input gradient is defined as a step function, u(t), that switches instantaneously from zero to a constant value. The resulting output, y(t), is measured using the gradient measurement technique of Duyn et al. [32]. The measured gradient shape is then used to approximate the impulse response, h(t), of the gradient amplifier and coils.

However, there is a paucity of information concerning the overall

However, there is a paucity of information concerning the overall quality of implantation procedures as they are performed in various academic and nonacademic centers throughout the United States. Galunisertib mw In an effort to obtain information regarding the overall

quality of permanent seed implantation procedures as performed in the United States, Quality Research in Radiation Oncology (QRRO) performed a random survey of centers practicing prostate brachytherapy and obtained the postimplantation CT scans as well as dosimetric evaluations performed based on these scans. In a unique process, through a web-based remote deidentification process, postimplantation scans were downloaded to a central site from where they were extracted and underwent an independent evaluation by an expert institution. This report will summarize the dosimetric evaluation performed on these patients and compare these measures of quality to the dosimetric parameters submitted by the practicing institution. Of 414 eligible prostate cancer cases from 45 surveyed institutions, 86 patients received low-dose-rate brachytherapy

and were eligible for this study. We collected CT images, dose distributions, and contours from 59 of the 86 patients from 15 of 21 institutions with eligible cases. Nineteen cases were not used owing to the inability to retrieve the images (i.e., images no longer available in the submitting institution’s computer planning system, images stored in jpeg format only, or changes in software making it impossible for the site to transfer Antidiabetic Compound Library order image data without updating software they no longer used); for eight cases, portions of data were missing that would have been needed to complete the dosimetric analysis. In addition, there were 10 test cases from two institutions that selleck chemical were initially used from a community institution (which was similar to the rest of the sampled

cohort) and were included to increase the number of cases evaluated for a final study cohort of 69 cases. Institutions in each of the four strata (academic, large nonacademic, medium nonacademic, and small nonacademic) participated. The QRRO survey used stratified two-stage cluster sampling, with radiation oncology facilities from a master list of those operating in the United States in 2007 being stratified, a random sample of facilities selected from each stratum, and a random sample of eligible cases selected from each participating facility. Facility strata were classified as academic (main teaching hospital of a medical school or National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center), large nonacademic (facility with at least three linear accelerators actively treating the patients), medium nonacademic (facility with two linear accelerators actively treating the patients), and small nonacademic (facility with one linear accelerator actively treating the patients).