The lowest dose regimen from Study B, 5 μg (3×/72 hr), was repeated, and two lower dose regimens, 2 μg (4×/72 hr) and 1 μg (4×/72 hr), were added. The 5 μg
(3×/72 hr) and 2 μg (4×/72 hr) dose regimens had remission rates of 63% and 53%, respectively, similar to the higher dose regimens in Study B. Again, there was no statistically significant difference in remission rates between the 5 μg (3×/72 hr) and 2 μg (4×/72 hr) dose regimens in Study C, or the various dose regimens in Study B. As in the higher dose regimens in Study B, these mice entered remission 1–2 weeks after treatment and the remission was long-lasting, up to 24 weeks of follow-up. However, at the 1 μg (4×/72 hr) dose find more regimen, the remission rate dropped to 16% and this reduction was significantly different compared with the 2 μg (4×/72 hr) dose regimen (P < 0·05). Yet, for mice that did enter remission, the remission was long-term (up to 24 weeks). Thus, the minimum effective dose of monoclonal anti-CD3 F(ab′)2 for the 4×/72 hr dose regimen is ≥ 1 μg. In both Studies B and C, partial remission was observed in one or two mice within each dose regimen, such https://www.selleckchem.com/products/hydroxychloroquine-sulfate.html that normal glycaemia was detected in these mice for a transient period ranging from 3 to 11 weeks post-treatment. Thereafter, the blood glucose levels rose quickly and were sustained at
levels of ≥ 250 mg/dl. There was no correlation between dose and the numbers of mice exhibiting partial
remission. Overall, all of the mice that entered remission did so within 1–2 weeks after treatment, consistent with previous studies,10 and the majority of remissions observed were durable for at least the 12-week observation period. In addition to modulation of the CD3–TCR complex, the PD parameters routinely assessed Immune system in clinical studies of otelixizumab include changes in various immune-cell subsets such as CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+ FoxP3+ T cells. Because we wanted to mirror the PD parameters routinely collected in clinical situations, we specifically elected to evaluate similar flow-cytometric PD parameters in the peripheral blood of mice from Studies B and C. In Studies B and C, the proportions of CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+ FoxP3+ T cells were assessed before dosing and again within 24 hr of the last dose. We elected to use the CD4+ FoxP3+ phenotype to identify Treg cells in the periphery, given that FoxP3 expression directly correlates with Treg-cell function, regardless of the CD25 expression levels20 and because CD25 is also found on activated CD4+ T cells. In Study B, T-cell subsets were also evaluated at the 12-week end-point. We first compared T-cell subset proportions between two groups: (i) placebo and (ii) all mice that received antibody in Studies B and C.