Brown adipocytes produced lower amounts of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) than white adipocytes in response to low O-2 but induced higher levels of hypoxia-associated genes. The response of white adipocytes to hypoxia required HIF-1 alpha, but its presence alone was incapable of inducing target gene expression
under normoxic conditions. In addition to the HIF-1 alpha targets, hypoxia also induced many inflammatory genes. Exposure of white adipocytes to a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) ligand (troglitazone) attenuated induction of these genes but 123 enhanced expression of the HIF-1 alpha targets. Knockdown of PPAR gamma in mature white adipocytes prevented the usual robust
induction of HIF-1 alpha targets in response to hypoxia. Similarly, knockdown of PPAR gamma coactivator (PGC) 1 beta in PGC-1 alpha-deficient brown adipocytes eliminated their response to Napabucasin hypoxia. These data demonstrate that the response of white adipocytes requires HIF-1 alpha but also depends on PPAR gamma in white cells and the PPAR gamma cofactors PGC-1 alpha and PGC-1 beta in brown cells.”
“Cocaine dependence is defined by a loss of inhibitory control over drug-use behaviors, mirrored by measurable impairments in laboratory tasks of inhibitory control. The current study tested the hypothesis that deficits in multiple subprocesses of behavioral control are associated with reliable neural-processing alterations that define cocaine addiction. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging CP868596 (fMRI), 38 cocaine-dependent men and 27 healthy control men performed a stop-signal task of motor inhibition. An independent component analysis on fMRI time courses identified task-related neural networks attributed to motor, visual, cognitive and affective processes. The statistical associations of these components with five different stop-signal task conditions were selected for use in a linear discriminant analysis to define a classifier for cocaine addiction from a subsample of 26 cocaine-dependent men and 18 controls. Leave-one-out cross-validation
accurately classified 89.5% (39/44; chance accuracy = 26/44 AZD4547 supplier = 59.1%) of subjects with 84.6% (22/26) sensitivity and 94.4% (17/18) specificity. The remaining 12 cocaine-dependent and 9 control men formed an independent test sample, for which accuracy of the classifier was 81.9% (17/21; chance accuracy = 12/21 = 57.1%) with 75% (9/12) sensitivity and 88.9% (8/9) specificity. The cocaine addiction classification score was significantly correlated with a measure of impulsiveness as well as the duration of cocaine use for cocaine-dependent men. The results of this study support the ability of a pattern of multiple neural network alterations associated with inhibitory motor control to define a binary classifier for cocaine addiction.