Methods: CMR studies were performed in 11 subjects with rTOF (5M/6F; 20.1 +/- 12.4
years) and 10 normal volunteers (6M/4F; 34.2 +/- 13.4 years) on clinical 1.5T and 3.0T MR scanners. 4D VM-CMR was performed using PC VIPR (Phase Contrast Vastly undersampled Isotropic Projection Reconstruction). Interactive streamline and particle trace visualizations of the superior and inferior vena cava (IVC and SVC, respectively), right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and pulmonary artery (PA) were generated and reviewed by three experienced readers. selleck kinase inhibitor Main PA net flow, retrograde flow, peak flow, time-to-peak flow, peak acceleration, resistance index and mean wall shear stress were quantified. Differences in flow patterns between the two groups were tested using Fisher’s exact test. Differences in quantitative parameters were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum selleck products test.
Results: 4D VM-CMR was successfully performed in all volunteers and subjects with TOF. Right heart flow patterns in rTOF subjects were characterized by (a) greater SVC/IVC flow during diastole than systole, (b)
increased vortical flow patterns in the RA and in the RV during diastole, and (c) increased helical or vortical flow features in the PA’s. Differences in main PA retrograde flow, resistance index, peak flow, time-to-peak flow, peak acceleration and mean wall shear stress were statistically significant.
Conclusions: Whole heart 4D VM-CMR with PC VIPR enables detection of both normal and abnormal right heart flow patterns, which may allow for comprehensive studies to evaluate interdependencies of post-surgically altered geometries and hemodynamics.”
“New innovative techniques and more efficacious hardware allowing JNK-IN-8 rapid and reliable fixation have resulted in better mandibular angle fracture management. This article presents follow-up data to our previous report, “”Treatment of mandibular angle fracture with a matrix miniplate: a preliminary report,”" regarding the safety and efficacy of the 2.0 matrix strut miniplate in clinical practice. Mandibular angle fractures repaired with a
single 2.0 matrix strut miniplate, using an intraoral approach, were selected for chart review over a 10-year period. Demographics including patient information, fracture etiology, site of fracture, treatment, surgical duration, and follow-up were collected. Complications were recorded along with the method of treatment. The significance (P = 0.05) of association between demographic and clinical factors with surgical complications was examined using Fisher exact tests. Thirty-four patients with mandibular angle fractures underwent matrix miniplate fixation via an intraoral approach. These patients were followed up for a mean follow-up period of 12 months. Four patients developed complications: 2 with infection requiring hardware removal and external fixation (5.