992) the most differentiating (Table 1) Diversity of peptide seq

992) the most differentiating (Table 1). Diversity of peptide sequence types After translating the in-frame nucleotide sequences into the peptide sequences a total of 31 different pSTs with 19 (61.3%) new pSTs were generated from the analyzed isolates (Additional file 1: Table S1). The pSTs occurred with a frequency of 0.8% to 28.5%. For the different loci a total of 39 distinct alleles were found. For most of the loci, one allele was dominant (more than 90%), except for p_dnaE and p_pyrC. New

alleles (n = 15) were identified for all loci despite of p_gyrB and p_recA. The Simpsons Index of diversity was heterogenic, with very low values for p_gyrB, p_recA and p_tnaA (0.000, Torin 1 cost 0.000, and 0.127) indicating a low ability to discriminate between strains up to higher values for p_dnaE and p_pyrC (0.630 and 0.791) (Table 1). To summarize the data of the different subpopulations, less different pSTs with a lower proportion of new types were observed, but for several 17-AAG nmr regions pSTs

were diverse, e.g. each distinct ST of strains from the Chillaw region in Sri Lanka possessed a unique corresponding pST (Table 2). Peptide sequence types of pubMLST database In total, 584 STs with at least one corresponding isolate were present in the pubMLST database and translation of the in-frame sequences yielded 166 distinct pSTs. AA-MLST profiles and properties of each allele on peptide level (numbers, sequences and frequencies) are shown in Additional file 2: Tables S2. An alternative AA-MLST typing scheme was applied by Theethakaew et al. during the preparation of this manuscript [24]. Comparison of MLST and AA-MLST In total, 372 unique MLST and 39 AA-MLST-alleles were detected in our study. Therefore most of the reduction (mean of 95.6%) in strain diversity stemmed from the wobble bases as exemplarily calculated for the most common allele of each locus of the Ergoloid pubMLST dataset (data not shown). The proportion of the alleles of one locus to the total number of alleles changed from nucleotide to peptide level as reflected by the d N /d S -values and revealing different influences of the loci on both

typing schemes. For example, on nucleotide level 65 different gyrB alleles were transformed into one p_gyrB. This is reflected by a d N /d S -value of 0 that indicates exclusively synonymous substitutions. In contrast, far more non-synonymous substitutions (as indicated by a d N /d S -value of 0.045) were observed for pyrC. Clonal relationships among global sets and subsets of isolates To identify the population structure of the analyzed strains, the standardized Index of Association ( ) was calculated (Table 3). The value differed learn more significantly from zero, when all our isolates, all subsets separately or all pubMLST isolates were included, indicating that the alleles were in linkage disequilibrium or were not randomly distributed. When analyzing only one isolate per ST, the drops, but remains unequal to zero, indicating a tendency to linkage disequilibrium.

On the other hand, systemic effects from not stabilized spine fra

On the other hand, systemic effects from not stabilized spine fractures seem to be negligible when compared to long bone fractures [93]. It is evident, that in Type A fractures not seldom additional discoligamentous injuries are found, consecutively altering the classification from initial MLN4924 solubility dmso stable into unstable, which in the case of quick posterior stabilization is also addressed. If feasible, the insertion of minimal-invasive implants

limits secondary hit by lesser blood loss, Savolitinib price fast approaches and minimal soft tissue injury as reported in previous studies [94, 95]. It preserves and exhibits the principles of damage control orthopaedics in spine trauma, (see Figure 3). Figure 3 Minimal-invasive percutaneous instrumentation

and secondary anterior surgery in a polytraumatized patient with burst fracture of T12. This is a case of a 32 year old male patient following a motor bike accident. The patient suffered from hematopneumothorax, intracapsular rupture of the liver, humeral head fracture selleck compound and moderate traumatic brain injury resulting in an ISS of 34. Following primary survey and whole body CT-Scan, the patient was transferred to the OR. A chest tube was inserted and the patient was positioned prone for primary stabilization of the type A3.3 fracture of T12 (images A-D). Closed reduction and percutaneous pedicle insertion allowed quick surgery (45 minutes) and limited surgery related injury without substantial blood loss and excessive antigen load as compared to conventional open stabilization (images E-F). After uneventful recovery, definitive anterior surgery using a thoracoscopy assisted approach was performed on day 7 post trauma

(images G-H). Follow-up at 24 months shows good operative result of the bisegmental fusion (images I-J). Type B fractures Distraction forces to the spinal column generate type B fractures. selleck chemical Posterior distraction injuries are often initially overseen or neglected, thus instable injuries are falsely regarded as stable and surgery is delayed. It is crucial to look out for signs of posterior distraction in these patients, since type B fractures are assigned unstable and require immediate stabilization in the primary operative phase [23, 26, 86]. To restore posterior tension banding, we use open or minimal-invasive posterior instrumentation, as mentioned beforehand. Type C fractures Axial compression or distraction forces in combination with a rotational momentum generate type C fractures. These are regarded as highly unstable and are associated with the highest rate of neurologic deficits. These fracture patterns are in need of immediate surgery, too. Although minimal-invasive percutaneous instrumentation is available, and secondary hit by limited approach related injury is favourable in the polytraumatized patient, the minimal-invasive stabilization in type C fractures plays no role, so far.

In contrast, an increase in

In contrast, an increase in skeletal muscle insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been observed after HMB treatment of chicken and human myoblasts [76]. Taken together, these results suggest that HMB may affect GH/IGF-1 axis signaling; however, #GW-572016 chemical structure randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# the effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis requires more investigation. It is possible that the GH/IGF-1 axis signaling may require a large change in plasma HMB levels. At this point, it is not clear whether a threshold response to a specific concentration of plasma HMB exists. This certainly merits further investigation. Skeletal muscle regeneration

In addition to the direct effects on protein synthesis, HMB has been shown to affect satellite cells in skeletal muscle. Kornaiso et al. [76] cultured myoblasts in a serum-starved state to induce apoptosis. When myoblasts were cultured with HMB, the mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factor D (MyoD), a marker of cell proliferation, was increased in a dose responsive manner. Moreover, the addition of various GSK126 in vitro concentrations of HMB (25–100 μg/ml) to the culture medium for 24 hours resulted in a marked increase of myogenin and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) expression, markers of cell differentiation. As a result, there was a significant increase

in the number of cells, suggesting a direct action of HMB upon the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Skeletal muscle proteolysis Skeletal muscle proteolysis is increased in catabolic states such as fasting, immobilization, aging, and disease [77]. HMB has been shown to decrease skeletal muscle protein degradation both in vitro[72, 73] and in vivo[78]. The mechanisms whereby HMB affects skeletal muscle protein degradation are described below. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is an energy-dependent proteolytic system that degrades intracellular proteins. The activity of this pathway

is significantly increased in conditions of exacerbated skeletal muscle catabolism, such as fasting, immobilization, bed rest and disease [77]. Therefore, inhibition of this proteolytic system could explain the attenuation of skeletal learn more muscle protein losses observed during treatment with HMB. Indeed, HMB has been shown to decrease proteasome expression [72] and activity [72, 78–80] during catabolic states, thus attenuating skeletal muscle protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Caspase proteases induce skeletal muscle proteolysis through apoptosis of myonuclei and are commonly up-regulated in catabolic states. However, HMB has also been shown to attenuate the up-regulation of caspases, reduce myonuclear apoptosis in catabolic states, such as skeletal muscle cells cultured with large concentrations of inflammatory cytokines [81], and skeletal muscle unloading [82].

Both cities have

Both cities have knowledge and experience to share. The agricultural city could adopt the building codes of the urban city and participate in the xeriscaping program. Likewise, the urban

city could monitor surface water runoff and support the installation of drip irrigation. These best practices and need and capability questions often identify a potential partnership for knowledge sharing or matching a resource and an application; further examples abound.4 Some best practices, such as drip irrigation, may not apply to urban cities, but through partnerships with nearby agricultural regions, it may be an effective way to improve regional sustainability while having an economic benefit of greater crop yields for local produce. These best practices Bucladesine datasheet and need and capability questions often identify a potential partnership for knowledge sharing or matching Obeticholic in vivo a resource and an application. Urban cities generate vast quantities of compostable food waste but lack the application for compost. Meanwhile, farmers are spending ever more on fertilizers due to rising energy costs for ammonia production, which could be offset by a supply of compost from an urban sister city. The reciprocal trade of farm waste conversion to biofuel production completes the cycle with urban transit fleets often utilizing this local renewable

fuel feedstock. The practices taken individually may benefit only one of the participating cities at the expense of the partner. A cross-sectorial analysis such as this example, which connects the energy and transportation sector with food and agriculture, demonstrates the mutual benefit from an urban–rural

partnership. The multiple choice questions in the PAIRS metric identify specific areas of reciprocity Urease and mutual benefit which could occur between two cities. When either the resource or application is missing from a single city, the score is low. When two cities match a resource and application, the combined score is higher. The normalization technique of Eq. 2 balances the www.selleckchem.com/products/MK-1775.html numeric impact of each question on the evaluation of the total PAIRS metric. Each question that uncovers a possible collaboration between two cities increases the total PAIRS metric score. PAIRS assessment criteria Assessment of public acceptability of the PAIRS metric includes psychological, demographic, and contextual independent variables. Psychological variables include commonly investigated values within Schwartz’s Value Theory, or the Value-Belief-Norm Theory (Stern 2000). The variables, listed from the most abstract to the most specific, include self-transcendence (e.g., care for others, peace, justice), enhancement (e.g., care for ego, accomplishments), biospheric (e.g., care for earth), traditionalism (e.g., respecting elders), and openness to change (e.g., curiosity, variety in life), as well as environmental concern and personal norm to protect the environment (e.g., feeling a moral environmental obligation).

If we can control the z-distance between the

nanoemitter

If we can control the z-distance between the

nanoemitter and the Au nanoarray, it is possible to manipulate the LDOS enhancement as well as the light emission rate. Moreover, the large field and LDOS enhancement can also be demonstrated by the PL measurement [33, 45], and these detailed experimental results can be found in Additional file 1: Figure S4. Since the emission rate CUDC-907 ic50 of nanoemitters is proportional to the LDOS, the increase of LDOS greatly confirms the utilization of the Au nanoarray for light emission-manipulating nanoantennas. The light emission rate manipulation experiment was set up using a time-correlated single-photon counting system [45], and the normalized PRN1371 time-resolved PL spectra are shown in Figure 4. The nanoemitters were commercial quantum dots with emission peak located at 655 nm, and the wavelength of incident laser was tuned to 400 nm with the excitation power of 2 mW. Figure 4a shows the LDOS enhancement in the presence of a dipole with an emission wavelength of 655 nm at 10 nm above the Au nanoarray. An average enhancement of 64 times can be found

Tideglusib research buy from the calculation results. Compared with the average LDOS enhancement of 75 times at the emission wavelength of 792 nm, it can be seen that the LDOS enhancement region of the Au nanoarray is quite large, which can make the Au nanoarray find useful applications in the design of functional plasmonic devices. In Figure 4b, the PL decay trace of the QDs on SiO2 substrate and pure AAO are single exponential

with the corresponding emission rate τ = 0.0429 ns−1 on SiO2 and τ = 0.0559 ns−1 on pure AAO. The single-exponential decay trace indicates that the cooperative effects caused by the assembling of QDs can be neglected [18]. On the contrary, the time-resolved PL curve of QDs on Au nanoarray decays in a two-component exponential form: where A f and A s are the weight factors of the fast and slow decay processes, selleck compound respectively, and t f and t s are the corresponding lifetimes (emission rate τ = 1/t). The two-component exponential decay form suggests the strong interaction between QDs and Au nanoarrays. Figure 4 LDOS enhancement and the normalized time-resolved PL spectra of QDs on Au nanoarray. (a) The x-position dependence of LDOS enhancement at the wavelength of 655 nm. An average LDOS enhancement of 64 times can be achieved. (b) The normalized time-resolved PL spectra of QDs with emission peak located at 655 nm. The emission rate of QDs increases from 0.0429 to 0.5 ns−1 by the existence of the Au nanoarray, showing an enhancement of 10.7 times. From the data in Figure 4, t s is 23.3 ns, while t f is 2.0 and 3.4 ns for QDs on uniform and nonuniform Au nanoarrays, respectively.

J Am Chem Soc 2011, 133:18506–18509 CrossRef 11 Katz M, Graham G

J Am Chem Soc 2011, 133:18506–18509.CrossRef 11. Katz M, Graham G, Duan Y, Liu H, Adamo C, Schlom D, Pan X: Self-regeneration of Pd–LaFeO 3 catalysts: new insight from atomic-resolution electron microscopy. J Am Chem Soc 2011, 133:18090–18093.CrossRef 12. Kizaki H, Kusakabe K, Nogami S, Katayama-Yoshida H: Generation of nano-catalyst particles by spinodal nano-decomposition in perovskite. Appl Phys Express 2008, 1:104001.CrossRef 13. Tian ZX, Inagaki K, Morikawa Y: Density functional theory on the comparison of the Pd segregation behavior at LaO- and FeO 2 -terminated surfaces

of LaFe 1- x Pd x O 3- y . Current Appl Phys 2012, 12:S105.CrossRef 14. www.selleckchem.com/products/tideglusib.html Morikawa Y, Ishii H, Seki K: Theoretical study of n -alkane adsorption on metal surfaces. Phys Rev B 2004, 69:041403.CrossRef 15. Sawada H, Morikawa Y, Terakura K, FHPI solubility dmso Hamada N: Jahn-Teller distortion and magnetic structures Selonsertib concentration in LaMnO 3 . Phys Rev B 1997, 56:12154–12160.CrossRef

16. Giannozzi P, Baroni S, Bonini N, Calandra M, Car R, Cavazzoni C, Ceresoli D, Chiarotti GL, Cococcioni M, Dabo I, Corso AD, Gironcoli S, de Fabris S, Fratesi G, Gebauer R, Gerstmann U, Gougoussis C, Kokalj A, Lazzeri M, Martin-Samos L, Marzari N, Mauri F, Mazzarello R, Paolini S, Pasquarello A, Paulatto L, Sbraccia C, Scandolo S, Sclauzero G, Seitsonen AP, Smogunov A, Umari P, Wentzcovitch RM: QUANTUM ESPRESSO: a modular and open-source software project for quantum simulations of materials. J Phys Condens Matter 2009, 21:395502.CrossRef 17. Vanderbilt D: Soft self-consistent pseudopotentials in a generalized Tryptophan synthase eigenvalue formalism. Phys Rev B 1990, 41:7892–7895.CrossRef

18. Perdew JP, Burke K, Ernzerhof M: Generalized gradient approximation made simple. Phys Rev Lett 1996, 77:3865.CrossRef 19. Barbier A, Stierle A, Kasper N, Guittet M–J, Jupille J: Surface termination of hematite at environmental oxygen pressures: Experimental surface phase diagram. Phys Rev B 2007, 75:233406.CrossRef 20. Shivakumara C: Low temperature synthesis and characterization of rare earth orthoferrites LnFeO 3 (Ln=La, Pr and Nd) from molten NaOH flux. Solid State Commun 2006, 139:165.CrossRef 21. Lee CW, Behera RK, Wachsman ED, Phillpot SR, Sinnott SB: Stoichiometry of LaFeO3 (010) surface determined from first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Phys Rev B 2011, 83:115418.CrossRef 22. Giraudon J–M, Elhachimi A, Wyrwalski F, Siffert S, Aboukais A, Lamonier J–F, Leclercq G: Studies of the activation process over Pd perovskite-type oxides used for catalytic oxidation of toluene. Appl Catal B: Environmental 2007, 75:157.CrossRef 23. Miquel P, Yamin Y, Lombaert K, Dujardin C, Granger P: Thermal ageing induced effects on Pd/LaFeO3 for NOx reduction by hydrocarbons: influence of the preparation method. Top Catal 2009, 52:1791.CrossRef 24. Humphrey W, Dalke A, Schulten K: VMD: visual molecular dynamics. J Mol Graphics 1996, 14:33.CrossRef 25. Monkhorst HJ, Pack JD: Special points for Brillouin-zone integrations. Phys Rev B 1976, 13:5188.

Gastroenterology 2004,127(2):412–421 CrossRefPubMed 12 Martin HM

Gastroenterology 2004,127(2):412–421.CrossRefPubMed 12. Martin HM, Campbell BJ, Hart this website CA, Mpofu C, Nayar M, Singh R, Englyst H, Williams HF, Rhodes JM: Enhanced Escherichia coli adherence and invasion in Crohn’s disease and colon cancer. Gastroenterology 2004,127(1):80–93.CrossRefPubMed 13. Baumgart M, Dogan B, Rishniw M, Weitzman G, Bosworth B, Yantiss R, Orsi RH, Wiedmann M, McDonough P, Kim SG, Berg D, Schukken Y, Scherl E, Simpson KW: Culture independent analysis of ileal mucosa reveals a selective increase in invasive Escherichia coli of novel phylogeny relative to depletion of Clostridiales in Crohn’s

disease involving the ileum. ISME J 2007,1(5):403–418.CrossRefPubMed 14. Sasaki M, Sitaraman SV, Babbin BA, Gerner-Smidt P, Ribot EM, Garrett N, Alpern JA, Akyildiz A, Theiss AL, Nusrat A, Klapproth J-MA: Invasive Escherichia coli are a feature of Crohn’s disease. Lab Invest 2007,87(10):1042–1054.CrossRefPubMed 15. Martinez-Medina M, Aldeguer X, Lopez-Siles M, González-Huix F, López-Oliu C, Dahbi G, Blanco JE, Blanco J, Garcia-Gil LJ, Darfeuille-Michaud A: Molecular diversity of Escherichia coli in the human gut: new ecological evidence supporting ISRIB clinical trial the role of adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) in Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009,15(6):872–882.CrossRefPubMed 16. Simpson KW, Dogan B, Rishniw M, Goldstein RE, Klaessig S, McDonough PL, German

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6 Hypothetical

6 Hypothetical result when evaluating the effectiveness of road mitigation SIS3 in vivo measures at a new road with mitigation. The new road with mitigation is constructed at time zero. In addition to the mitigation site, measurements are carried out—before and after road construction—at a no-mitigation control site and a no-road control site. Generally, there are four possible scenarios 1 the road mitigation measures are 100 % effective and population density remains at the level of the no-road control site, 2 the road mitigation measures are only partly effective https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Bortezomib.html and population density decreases compared to the no-road control site but does not reach the level of the no-mitigation

selleck chemical control site, 3 the road mitigation measures are not effective and population

density decreases to the level of the no-mitigation control site, 4 the road mitigation measures worsen the situation and population density decreases below the level of the no-mitigation control site All control sites need to be far enough away from the mitigation sites and each other to ensure statistical independence, yet still be as similar as possible. If possible, control sites should be sited along the same road as the mitigation site(s), as road age, design and traffic characteristics of the same section of road are probably similar. Such control sites should never immediately border the mitigation site(s), as possible edge effects of mitigation measures, e.g., an unnaturally high number of road-kill just at the end of the wildlife fencing, may influence the measurements. Select appropriate Thymidine kinase spatial scale of study Two factors need to be considered when determining the spatial scale of a study. First, the spatial scale of the study should match the spatial scale of the effect being mitigated. Stipulating a one-size fits all approach to determine the spatial scale of the study is not possible because the size of the road effect zone (Forman and Deblinger 2000; Forman et al. 2003) varies depending on the

effect, the species of concern, and the local situation (e.g., habitat type, topography). Second, the sampling effort should be apportioned equally across the road effect zone, as the road effect of concern may vary significantly within this zone. The effect-size of the road—and consequently the effect-size of road mitigation measures—will be often at its maximum in close proximity to the road. However, situations occur where the opposite is true, e.g., due to an increase in suitable edge habitat at the roadside (Mumme et al. 2000) or due to home range pile-up adjacent to the road due to barrier effects (Riley et al. 2006). It is often necessary to do a best guess about where the road effect zone ends.

For the substrate immersed vertically into the precursor solution

For the substrate immersed vertically into the precursor solution, branched ZnO nanowires with wurtzite crystal structure grow radially and form a flower shape see more on each of the Si backbones. The morphology of the product prepared by immersing

the substrate facedown into the Salubrinal research buy reaction solution is the same as that of the former case, and both seem to possess an identical growth speed as the length of ZnO nanowires is similar. Nevertheless, for the third case with a faceup direction, the ZnO nanowire arrays disappear on the Si backbones. The Si nanowires tend to bundle up and their surface becomes much rougher in contrast to the Si nanowires with seed layer in Figure 1f. It is well known that water molecules run violently at high temperature, which may cause deformation

of adjacent nanowire tips into clusters for reducing the total energy. Meanwhile, the condensation of the ZnO nanoparticles from the growth solution results in the rough surface of the Si nanowires. The observation indicates that the presence of gravity gradient is a key issue for the growth of ZnO nanowire arrays. Otherwise, only the condensation of the ZnO nanoparticles takes place in a form of film on the seed layer. The intrinsic mechanism possibly lies in the specific Selleckchem Combretastatin A4 character of chemical reactions in the aqueous solution as well as the thermodynamics and kinetics of ZnO growth, which is under further

exploration. Figure 5 SEM images of products prepared in different substrate directions in solution: (a) vertical, (b) facedown, and (c) faceup. The Si nanowire arrays were capped with ZnO seed layer before hydrothermal growth. It is worthwhile to point out that the seed layer is another important factor in the growth of branched ZnO nanowires. Figure 6 shows the SEM images of the products prepared by 30-min etching and 2-h hydrothermal growth but without the seed layer deposition. The substrates were also soaked in different directions relative to the solution surface during the hydrothermal growth. It is found that after hydrothermal growth, all the Si nanowire arrays exhibit original morphologies except the ZD1839 bending of the nanowires to form sheaf-like structures in some specimens. The ZnO nanowires or nanorods are also created but disperse randomly on the Si nanowire arrays surface and are removed easily by subsequent cleaning. The sheaf-like structures in Figure 6 are due to the surface tension force presence in the high-temperature solution as well as in the drying process that deforms adjacent nanowire tips into clusters. For the disappearance of ZnO nanowire branches, it is well known that the crystal structure and chemical bonds of ZnO substance are different from those of Si substance.

There are no studies of comparative genomics in Rhizobiales with

There are no studies of comparative genomics in Rhizobiales with a focus on symbiosis and pathogenesis processes with the analyzed BTSA1 mouse representative mTOR inhibitor species of both lifestyles and showing phylogenetic analysis with many distinct operons involved in these processes. Besides this, the database offered by this study is the most representative for Rhizobiales until now and will also allow further important

investigations that may help to infer crucial events that had contributed to the evolution of symbiosis of pathogenesis interactions. Methods In order to select the species used for genomic comparison based on their phylogenetic proximity, a reconstruction with 30 bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales was obtained. The chosen this website strains belong

to 25 different species and 12 genera and are shown in Figure 1. The reconstruction was performed by using a dataset consisting of 104 concatenated housekeeping proteins [55] based on the work of Williams et al. (2007) [56] and kindly provided by the authors, which showed a robust reconstruction for alpha-Proteobacteria. In addition to the species used by these authors, we included the sequences of R. vitis strain S4 and R. radiobacter strain K84, both previously classified in the genus Agrobacterium and both of whose genomes are available: strain S 4 is the pathogenic agent of crown gall disease in grapes, while strain K84 is non-pathogenic and has been developed for worldwide commercial use to control crown gall. The tree generated was then established as the model phylogeny. From this tree, species with the largest phylogenetic proximity with the neighbor species of the other genera were selected, and representatives of the beta-Proteobacteria class were used as the outgroup. Therefore, from the 30 species used in the reconstruction model (Figure 1), 19 were selected for comparative analysis (additional file 1). Rhizobium sp. NGR234 is not present in the reconstruction tree because some of the housekeeping proteins were not available, impairing the

alignment. However, this bacterium was included in the comparison because it contains most of the genes analyzed in this study. R. palustris BisA53 was selected in preference to Nitrobacter Nb-31 1A because triclocarban it is phylogenetically closely related to B. japonicum. Mesorhizobium BNC1 (an EDTA-degrading bacterium formerly known as Agrobacterium sp. BNC1), Aurantimonas SI85-9A1 (a marine bacterium known by its role in Mn(II) oxidation, and unusual in its feature of possessing both the large and small subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase – RubisCO) and X. autotrophicus Py2 (a nitrogen-fixing methylotrophic, found in organic-rich soil, sediment, and water, and possessing genes responsible for alkene degradation) were selected by their proximity to the symbiotic bacteria in the phylogeny model (Figure 1), although they are not symbionts.