The technique can be used to create a posterior capsulectomy of a

The technique can be used to create a posterior capsulectomy of a desirable size in a controlled manner to avoid destabilization of the IOL. It can be applied selectively in cases of pediatric cataract surgery.”
“We investigated the correlation between morphology and electron spin relaxation time in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)

on misoriented GaAs(110) substrates. For the MQW on a 2 degrees-misoriented GaAs(110), formation of wide (110) step terraces due to step bunching was observed. Measurements of the temperature dependence of the electron spin relaxation time tau(s) showed that the D’yakonov-Perel’ (DP) spin relaxation was suppressed even in the MQW on the 2 degrees-misoriented GaAs(110) Doramapimod owing to the step terrace formation. In contrast, Nec-1s purchase in the MQW on a 5 degrees-misoriented GaAs(110), in which the surface showed ripple patterns, the tau(s) became shorter than that on the on-axis GaAs(110), which we attribute to the enhanced electron spin relaxation originating from the bulk inversion asymmetry term in the DP mechanism that is induced by the substrate misorientation. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3622586]“

asiatica (L.) Urban has been traditionally used for the treatment of various disease and as a food for thousands of years in various parts of the world including

eastern Asia, China and India. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica aqueous leaf extract on the induction of spermatogenic cell apoptosis in male rats. After lethal dose (LD50) assessment of plant extract, rats were divided in five groups. The experimental groups received orally 10, 50, 80 and 100 mg/kg aqueous leaf extract daily for 60 days and the control group received just water. After 60 days, body and testis weight were measured and blood samples were taken from the heart. To evaluate apoptosis and histological changes, tissue samples obtained from rat testes were stained by TUNEL assay and hematoxylin and eosin stain. AC220 Results showed that the sperm count, motility, and viability and the number of spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules were significantly decreased compared with the control group. The number of apoptotic germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross-section was significantly increased in the experimental group (18.11 +/- A 3.5) compared with the control group (8.7 +/- A 0.81) (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels also showed significant decreases in the experimental groups (P < 0.05). There was also a significant decrease in testis weight in experimental groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05).

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Nucleus accumb

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) are a collection of neurons that form the main part of the ventral striatum, which is a significant dopaminergic structure. Also, NAcc is thought to play an important

role in reward, pleasure, laughter, addiction, aggression, fear, and the placebo effect. In the present work we were interested in studying the effects of a 6-OHDA induced lesion in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), which is known as an important dopaminergic structure, on a specific behavioral task that involves both short term and long term spatial memory (the radial-8-arm-maze task), as well as on the oxidative stress markers (two antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase-SOD and glutathione peroxidase-GPX and a lipid peroxidation marker: selleck products malondialdehyde-MDA, Selleck ATM Kinase Inhibitor as well as the total antioxidant status-TAS) from the temporal lobe, which is considered to be the most vulnerable cortical

area to oxygen levels fluctuations and hypoxia. Our results showed some significant effects of this lesion on the reference memory errors and time necessary to finish the test in the radial-8-arm-maze task. Additionally, increased oxidative stress status was demonstrated in the temporal lobe of the lesioned rats, as demonstrated by the high levels of lipid peroxidation and decreased total antioxidant status. Moreover, significant BTSA1 correlations are reported here between the behavioral parameters which we studied in the radial-8-arm-maze task and the aforementioned

oxidative stress markers. (C) Versita Sp. z o.o.”
“Various endoscopic techniques are being increasingly used in early gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser has precise tissue cutting ability and good hemostatic properties and has been widely applicated to soft tissue, but the use of endoscopic Ho:YAG laser ablation for early gastrointestinal cancer has not been reported. Twenty patients with biopsy-proven early GI cancer who had a high surgical risk or refused surgery were treated by endoscopic Ho:YAG laser ablation. The tumors of all patients were confined to the mucosal layer without ulceration and without lymph node metastasis. The tumor diameter was not more than 2.5 cm. Endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and computed tomography scan were performed 1-3 months after the treatment, and a biopsy was performed to evaluate the effects of the therapy. Long-term endoscopic follow-up was maintained.

After 24 weeks of treatment, 39 patients (16%) were nonresponders

After 24 weeks of treatment, 39 patients (16%) were nonresponders. In multivariate analysis, lower serum ribavirin concentrations, HCV genotype 14 and higher baseline

?-GT predicted nonresponse. Week-24 ribavirin concentrations (2.2 vs 2.8 mg/L, P < 0.001), average ribavirin doses (14.5 vs 15.2 mg/kg per day, P = 0.03) and week-24 haemoglobin decreases (1.7 vs 2.0 mm, P = 0.02) were lower in nonresponders. Nonresponse rates increased progressively at decreasing ribavirin concentrations: 4%, 11%, 13% and 36% in case of serum ribavirin concentrations =4, 34, 23 check details and =2 mg/L, respectively (P = 0.001). Ribavirin concentrations correlated with both week-24 haemoglobin decreases (r = 0.42, P < 0.001) and ribavirin doses (r = 0.17, P = 0.01). Subgroup analysis in HCV genotype 14 patients revealed essentially the same results. Nonresponse was exceptional in HCV genotype

ML323 mouse 23 patients and associated with ribavirin concentrations <2 mg/L. Presumed interferon-related factors (average PEG-interferon doses and decreases in leucocytes, granulocytes, platelets and body weight) did not differ between nonresponders and responders. In conclusion, ribavirin- rather than PEG-interferon-related factors are independent and potentially modifiable predictors of nonresponse in treatment-naive CHC patients.”
“Detailed spectral response (SR) modeling for heterojunction bipolar phototransistors (HPTs) is presented in this work. All the related physical parameters are taken into account for the resolution of photogenerated excess minority carrier continuity equations in

the active layers of the HPT. The layer dependence of the optical flux absorption profile at near-bandgap wavelengths is also investigated and its generalization as a single-exponential has been refuted for HPTs based on GaAs material systems (InGaP-GaAs/AlGaAs-GaAs). The variation in the responsivity of the device with Selleckchem BIBF-1120 changing base width is analyzed at various wavelengths and a detailed experimental setup for optical characterization of HPTs is also provided. The measured results at 635, 780, 808, and 850 nm show good agreement to the modeled data, validating the newly developed theoretical model. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3585846]“
“B7 ligands deliver both costimulatory and coinhibitory signals to the CD28 family of receptors on T lymphocytes, the balance between which determines the ultimate immune response. Although B7-H4, a recently discovered member of the B7 family, is known to negatively regulate T cell immunity in autoimmunity and cancer, its role in solid organ allograft rejection and tolerance has not been established. Targeting the B7-H4 molecule by a blocking antibody or use of B7-H4-/- mice as recipients of fully MHC-mismatched cardiac allografts did not affect graft survival. However, B7-H4 blockade resulted in accelerated allograft rejection in CD28-deficient recipients.

Effects of grafting

conditions such as irradiation dosage

Effects of grafting

conditions such as irradiation dosage, acrylonitrile concentration, and solvents on the grafting yield were investigated. The adsorption performance for mercury ions were evaluated by batch adsorption experiments and kinetic experiments. The results show that AB is effective for the removal of mercury see more over a wide range of pH > 5. Adsorption isotherms of mercury ions on the modified bagasse can be well described by Langmuir equation. The equilibrium adsorption amount could be as high as 917.4 mg/g, and the removal percent of mercury ions can achieve 99%. The kinetic adsorption results indicate that AB could remove 80% of mercury ions in 2 h and 24 more hours are needed to achieve adsorption equilibrium. Regeneration experiments show that the adsorption capacity of recycled AB still can reach the level of 96% after four

cycles. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2854-2861, 2010″
“MicroRNAs Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor (miRNAs) posttranscriptionally regulate targeted messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by inducing cleavage or otherwise repressing their translation. We address the problem of detecting m/miRNA targeting relationships in homo sapiens from microarray data by developing statistical models that are motivated by the biological mechanisms used by miRNAs. The focus of our modeling is the construction, activity, and mediation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) competent for targeted mRNA cleavage. We demonstrate that regression models accommodating RISC abundance

and controlling for other mediating factors fit the expression profiles of known target pairs substantially better than models based on m/miRNA expressions alone, and lead to verifications of computational target pair predictions that are more sensitive than those based on marginal expression levels. Because our models are fully independent of exogenous results from sequence-based computational methods, they are appropriate for use as either a primary or secondary source of information regarding m/miRNA target pair relationships, especially in conjunction with high-throughput expression studies.”
“The control of gelato powder mixture production usually is carried out evaluating the gelato liquid phase. The rheological measurements from the present study were conduced on gelato unfrozen liquid phase in order to indirectly evaluate its rheological properties by FT-NIR spectroscopy applied on gelato powders. The calibration set was composed by samples obtained from different recipes having increasing percentage of thickeners, maintaining the proportions of the others compounds constant. After the NIR acquisitions the powders were mixed with warm milk, blended and than settled in order to obtain the unfrozen liquid phase needed for the rheological measurements.

Immature parasites were found to penetrate the tissues sometimes

Immature parasites were found to penetrate the tissues sometimes to muscular layer but

adults were seen attached to the oral cavity and the lumen side of the oesophagus suggesting parasite goes through a tissue migration after infecting the definitive host and prior to adult stage. see more (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Novel surgical strategies have dramatically improved the initial outcome of newborns with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. However, the single systemic right ventricle remains a major challenge, with limited effectiveness of pharmacologic therapy. The present case documents that the intracoronary administration of autologous bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is technically feasible in a critically ill infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and severe heart failure after a hybrid comprehensive stage II procedure. Cell therapy might represent an option before heart transplantation in children with single ventricle physiology presenting with severe heart failure. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010;29:574-577 (C) 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“The effects of B and Si contents on the glass-forming ability (GFA) and soft-magnetic properties of (Co0.89Fe0.057Nb0.053)(100-x)(B0.8Si0.2)(x) (x=22-30) alloys this website were investigated. The thermal stability of the supercooled liquid increased

with increasing the B and Si contents from x=24 to 28, and accompanying the decreases of liquidus temperature of alloys. As a result, The (Co0.89Fe0.057Nb0.053)(100-x)(B0.8Si0.2)(x) bulk glassy alloys with diameters up to 3.5 mm were synthesized in the composition range of x=24-28. In addition to high GFA, the Co-based glassy alloys exhibit excellent soft-magnetic properties as well, i.e., moderate saturation magnetization of 0.51-0.72 T, low coercive

force of 0.4-1.5 A/m, and high initial permeability of 22 340-29 570 at 1 kHz under a field of 1 A/m. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3356233]“
“Glucocorticoids (GCs) are extensively Peptide 17 ic50 used in livestock production, not only for their anti-inflammatory properties but also to improve the quality and quantity of meat in veal and beef production. In Italy, an increase in GC-positive cases has been observed in cattle since 2008, particularly prednisolone (PDN). Recent studies clearly demonstrate that both histopathological analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS-MS) were unable to detect PDN treatments. The aim of this study was to identify transcriptomic signatures of PDN administration in the thymus of experimentally treated animals by comparison with untreated controls, in order to identify gene expression changes or pathways alteration induced by the corticosteroid treatment.


The buy CX-4945 purpose of this article is to provide a review of published studies relevant to the computed tomographic (CT) volumetric analysis of lung nodules. A number of underexamined areas of research regarding volumetric accuracy are identified, including the measurement of non-solid nodules, the effects of pitch and section overlap, and the effect of respiratory motion.

The need for public databases of phantom scans, as well as of clinical data, is discussed. The review points to the need for continued research to examine volumetric accuracy as a function of a multitude of interrelated variables involved in the assessment of lung nodules. Understanding and quantifying the sources of volumetric measurement error in the assessment of lung nodules with CT would be a first step toward the development of methods to minimize that error through system improvements and to correctly account for any remaining error. (c) RSNA, 2009″
“Composites of postconsumer high-density polyethylene with agave fiber were prepared by single-screw extrusion with azodicarbonamide as a foaming agent to increase VS-4718 the surface area; the composite pellets were coated with chitosan afterward. A chemical pretreatment was applied to the pellets to enhance the chitosan

gel compatibility. The adsorption capacities of the composites coated with chitosan were evaluated for Cd(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. The coated composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure metal uptake in batch adsorption studies.

The results of this study demonstrated the composites’ ability to immobilize chitosan on their surfaces and their capacity to adsorb metal ions. The OSI-906 manufacturer equilibrium isotherms for Cd(II) and Cu(II) adsorption on the chitosan-coated composites were described by the Langmuir model. This material represents an attractive low-cost recycled material for adsorbing metal ions from polluted waters. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2971-2980, 2010″
“Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is based on tracking of natural acoustic myocardial markers. The study aimed at quantifying global and regional endomyocardial and epimyocardial left ventricular longitudinal, circumferential and radial peak systolic strain and strain rate, including feasibility and variability; and assessing synchronicity and torsion, in healthy dogs. Cineloops were acquired from left apical 4-chamber, basal and apical right’parasternal short-axis views in 22 healthy Labrador retrievers. A general epimyocardial to endomyocardial strain gradient was found. Strain was higher at apex compared to base. A strain longitudinal base to apex gradient was found.

Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Study Desi

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Report of the use of one segmental artery from the left renal artery as inflow source for reconstructing

a spine with recalcitrant osteomyelitis.

Objective. To describe one difficult case of spinal osteomyelitis and our reconstruction procedure.

Summary of Background Data. The use of a vascularized Cell Cycle inhibitor fibular flap for spinal osteomyelitis has been reported previously, with vascular graft having a higher successful rate of bone union and overcoming poor perfusion beds. Because repeated spinal surgery may lead to severe scarring, the choice of recipient vessels may become a difficult issue.

Methods. A 49-year-old man with T12-L1 vertebral osteomyelitis experienced progressive spinal cord involvement.

Because previous multiple sessions of antibiotic treatment and surgery proved unsuccessful, a 2-stage surgery was planned. Posterior lateral fusion from T9 to L3 with MOSS Miami spine system (DePuy, Spine Inc, Raynham, MA) and allogenous bone graft were performed, followed by anterior debridement and reconstruction with free vascularized fibular graft 1 week later. End-to-side vascular anastomosis was performed between the peroneal artery and the upper anterior segment artery of the left renal artery.

Results. After more than 50 months follow-up, the patient was able to walk smoothly without the aid of a brace, walker, or crutches. There were no complications, and the radiograph showed good bony union. Furthermore, renal function Selleck Apoptosis Compound Library was normal.

Conclusion. The segmental renal artery

can be selected as one of the recipient vessels in spinal reconstruction surgery without detrimental effect on renal function in our case. The use of vascularized fibular flap is preferable in cases of recalcitrant spinal osteomyelitis. Staged surgery in the presence of spinal infection can offer good spinal stability and good bony union with lower infection risk.”
“Aims: To document the use of adjuvant regional irradiation after breast-conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer by Canadian radiation oncologists and to identify the factors influencing their clinical decisions.

Materials this website and methods: We conducted a survey to assess the above aims. In April 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 167 members of the Canadian and Quebec Associations of Radiation Oncologists with interest in breast cancer management. The answers were obtained through a dedicated website, which collected the raw data collected for analysis.

Results: In total, 67 radiation oncologists completed the survey, corresponding to a 40% response rate. Most respondents were experienced and high-volume providers. We identified several areas of variation in the decision-making regarding regional lymph node irradiation after breast-conserving therapy.

0001, ETLE, P = 0 009, IGE, P = 0008) The TLE group showed reduce

0001, ETLE, P = 0.009, IGE, P = 0008) The TLE group showed reduced memory for PEs compared with the other patients with epilepsy (P = 0.001) A time gradient PF-562271 in vitro was observed, with worse memory for PEs of the 1990s and for PEs that occurred after

onset of illness Our data support the key role of the temporal lobe in remote declarative memory With patients with TLE remembering fewer PEs from the period after onset of epilepsy, the deficits can be partly attributed to unsuccessful consolidation rather than retrieval difficulties alone (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved”
“To investigate the efficacy of long-term lamivudine (3TC) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) combination therapy in 3TC-resistant chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients, we analysed 28 3TC-resistant patients treated with the combination therapy during 47 months (range, 9-75). At 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, the rates of virological NU7441 purchase response with undetectable HBV DNA (< 2.6 log copies/mL) were 56, 80, 86, and 92%, respectively.

Among 17 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients, HBeAg disappeared in 24% at 12 months, 25% at 24 months, 62% at 36 months, and 88% at 48 months. When HBV genotypes were compared, patients with genotype B achieved virological response selleck compound significantly more rapidly than those

with genotype C (P = 0.0496). One patient developed virological breakthrough after 54 months, and sequence analysis of HBV obtained from the patient was performed. An rtA200V mutation was present in the majority of HBV clones, in addition to the 3TC-resistant mutations of rtL180M+M204V. The rtN236T ADV-resistant mutation was observed in only 25% clones. In vitro analysis showed that the rtA200V mutation recovered the impaired replication capacity of the clone with the rtL180M+M204V mutations and induced resistance to ADV. Moreover, rtT184S and rtS202C, which are known entecavir-resistant mutations, emerged in some rtL180M+M204V clones without rtA200V or rtN236T. In conclusion, 3TC+ADV combination therapy was effective for most 3TC-resistant patients, especially with genotype B HBV, but the risk of emergence of multiple drug-resistant strains with long-term therapy should be considered. The mutation rtA200V with rtL180M+M204V may be sufficient for failure of 3TC+ADV therapy.”
“This paper discusses numerical simulations of the magnetic field produced by an electromagnet for generation of forces on superparamagnetic microspheres used in manipulation of single molecules or cells.

The relative roles of radiologists and nonradiologists in the per

The relative roles of radiologists and nonradiologists in the performance of all biopsies, PNBs, and IGPBs were evaluated.

Results: Biopsy procedures with all approaches increased from 1380 to 1945 biopsies per 100 000 Medicare enrollees between 1997 and 2008, which represents a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3%. Utilization of non-PNBs fell, while the absolute level and relative share of PNBs increased. In 2008, 67% of all biopsies were performed by using a percutaneous route. IGPB as Saracatinib mw a percentage of all PNBs increased over time in the regions for which data were available. Radiology was the leading specialty providing biopsy services. The total number of biopsies performed

by radiologists increased at a CAGR of 8%, and radiologists’ share of all biopsies increased from 35% to 56%.

Conclusion: During the past decade, there was continuing substitution away from invasive approaches and non-imaging-guided percutaneous approaches in favor of PNBs and IGPBs, likely related to increasing use of advanced imaging modalities for biopsy guidance. Consequently, radiologists are performing an increasing share of biopsies across all anatomic regions.”
“Room click here temperature ferromagnetism has been experimentally observed in TiO2: N films prepared by pulse laser deposition under N2O atmosphere. The ferromagnetism appears when the N2O partial pressure is higher than 10(-5) Torr. XPS study has revealed

that N substitutes O at the partial pressure of 10(-5) Torr, whereas additional N atoms occupy interstitial sites besides substituting N at higher N2O partial pressures. Our study indicates that the origin of the ferromagnetism is the O substitution with N. Each substituted N has a magnetic moment of approximately 0.9 mu(B). The substitution of O also resulted in p-type behavior, accompanied with magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3535427]“
“Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of antegrade renal cooling during radiofrequency (RF) ablation to protect the renal collecting system in pigs.

Materials and Methods: With the approval of the institutional animal care and use committee, RF ablation was planned bilaterally

after nephrostomy in 20 kidneys from 10 domestic pigs. A coaxial assembly consisting of a 7-F pigtail catheter and a 12-F arterial sheath was placed at the renal pelvis. Cooled 5% dextrose in water solution was perfused in only one of the kidneys in each pig. A 17-gauge internally cooled tip RF electrode with a 3-cm tip was placed near the renal pelvis with ultrasonographic guidance. On postprocedural days 1 and 7, computed tomography (CT) was performed to evaluate the RF ablation effect, the presence of a fluid collection, and the leakage of contrast material. Ex vivo retrograde pyelography was performed to assess the integrity of the urinary tract after kidney harvest. Histologic findings related to the urothelial damage were scored semiquantitatively.

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 122: 64-75, 201

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 64-75, 2011″
“To date, no study has characterized the association between neighborhood poverty, racial composition and deceased Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor donor kidney waitlist. Using the United States Renal Data System data linked to 2000 U.S. Census Data, we examined Whites (n = 152 788) and Blacks (n = 130 300) initiating dialysis between January 2000 and December 2006. Subjects’ neighborhoods were divided into nine strata based on the percent of Black residents and percent poverty. Cox proportional hazards were used to determine the association between time to

waitlist and neighborhood characteristics after adjusting for demographics and comorbid conditions. Individuals from poorer Smoothened Agonist ic50 neighborhoods had a consistently lower likelihood of being waitlisted. This association was synergistic with neighborhood racial composition for Blacks, but not for Whites. Blacks in poor, predominantly Black neighborhoods (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.57, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.53-0.62) were less likely to appear on transplant waitlist than those in wealthy, predominantly Black neighborhoods (HR 0.80, CI 0.67-0.96) and poor, predominantly White neighborhoods (HR 0.79, CI 0.70-0.89). All were all less likely to be waitlisted than their Black counterparts in wealthy, predominantly White or mixed neighborhoods

(p < 0.05). Interventions targeted at individuals in poor and minority neighborhoods may represent an opportunity to improve equitable access to the deceased donor kidney waitlist.”
“Micron scale ferromagnetic tubes placed on the ends of ferromagnetic CoTaZr spin waveguides are explored in order to enhance the excitation selleck compound of backward volume magnetostatic spin waves. The tubes produce a closed

magnetic circuit about the signal line of the coplanar waveguide and are, at the same time, magnetically contiguous with the spin waveguide. This results in a ten-fold increase in spin wave amplitude. However, the tube geometry distorts the magnetic field near the spin waveguide, and relatively high biasing magnetic fields are required to establish well-defined spin waves. Only the lowest (uniform) spin wave mode is excited. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3559475]“
“The synthesis of tetrakis- derivatives of bisphenol-A containing azo groups at their 2,2′,6,6′-positions is reported. Novel examples of bisphenol-A, coupled with diazonium salts and derived from 4-phenylazoaniline and 5-(4-aminophenylazo)-25,26,27-tribenzoyloxy-28-hydroxycalix [4]arene, have been synthesized. It has been observed that the coupling reaction of diazonium salt obtained from 4-phenylazoaniline with bisphenol-A gives tetrakis- while those derived from 5-(4-aminophenylazo)-25,26,27-tribenzoyloxy-28-hydroxycalix [4] arene give partially substituted bisphenol-A analogues.