Patients with resting or relative bradycardia may be at higher than average risk.”
“Artificial neural networks
(ANN) are one of the highly preferred artificial intelligence techniques for brain image segmentation. The commonly used ANN is the supervised ANN, namely Back Propagation Neural Network (BPN). Even though BPNs guarantee high efficiency, they are computationally non-feasible due to the huge convergence time period. In this work, the aspect of computational complexity is tackled using the proposed high speed BPN algorithm (HSBPN). In this modified approach, the weight vectors are calculated without any training methodology. Magnetic resonance (MR) brain tumor images of three stages; namely severe, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/srt2104-gsk2245840.html moderate and mild, are
used in this work. An extensive feature set is extracted from these images and used as input learn more for the neural network. A comparative analysis is performed between the conventional BPN and the HSBPN in terms of convergence time period and segmentation efficiency. Experimental results show the superior nature of HSBPN in terms of the performance measures.”
“Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetic cause for intellectual disability. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice are an established model of FXS. Chronic pharmacological inhibition of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) in these mice corrects multiple molecular, physiological, and behavioral phenotypes related to patients’ symptoms. To better understand the pathophysiology of FXS and the effect of treatment, brain activity was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in relation to learning and memory performance. Methods: Wild-type (WT) and Fmr1 KO animals receiving chronic treatment with the mGlu5 inhibitor CTEP or
vehicle were evaluated consecutively for 1) learning and memory performance in the inhibitory avoidance and extinction test, and 2) for the levels of brain activity using continuous arterial spin labeling based functional magnetic FK228 resonance imaging. Neural activity patterns were correlated with cognitive performance using a multivariate regression analysis. Furthermore, mGlu5 receptor expression in brains of untreated mice was analyzed by autoradiography and saturation analysis using [H-3]-ABP688. Results: Chronic CTEP treatment corrected the learning deficit observed in Fmr1 KO mice in the inhibitory avoidance and extinction test and prevented memory extinction in WT and Fmr1 KO animals. Chronic CTEP treatment normalized perfusion in the amygdala and the lateral hypothalamus in Fmr1 KO mice and furthermore decreased perfusion in the hippocampus and increased perfusion in primary sensorimotor cortical areas. No significant differences in mGlu5 receptor expression levels between Fmr1 WT and KO mice were detected.
Methods. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and applanation tonometry were used to assess blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx) and central blood pressure (CBP). Immunoassays were used for measurements of plasma concentrations of vasoactive hormones: renin (PRC), angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone (Aldo), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin (AVP), pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP), endothelin (Endo), urinary excretions of
aquaporin 2 (AQP2), cyclic AMP (cAMP), and the beta-fraction of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC beta). Results. AQP2 excretion increased during potassium supplementation, and free water GW786034 clearance fell. The changes in urinary potassium excretion and urinary AQP2 excretion were significantly and positively correlated. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ew-7197.html Aldo increased. GFR, u-ENaC-beta, PRC, Ang II, ANP, BNP, Endo, blood pressure and AI were not significantly changed by potassium supplementation, whereas PWV increased slightly. Conclusions. Potassium supplementation changed renal tubular function and increased water absorption in the distal part of the nephron. In spite of an increase in aldosterone in plasma, blood pressure remained unchanged after potassium supplementation. ClinicalTrials. Gov Identifier: NCT00801034″
“Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked disorder
of overgrowth associated with multiple congenital malformations. We report on a child with typical facial and visceral manifestations of SGBS. in addition there were complex airway anomalies, swallow difficulties and associated bronchiectasis that have not previously been described. The case highlights the importance of comprehensive airway and swallow assessment in children with this overgrowth syndrome. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“An investigation of threshold voltage shifts in organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on pentacene with an additional soluble fullerene derivatives of [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) on gate dielectric. BLZ945 mouse With an additional soluble fullerene layer, the threshold voltage (V-th) is optimized from -3: 9 to -1:1 V without affect the
mode operation of the devices, while retaining the carrier mobility (0.02-0.03 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)) and on/off current ratio (similar to 10(4)). Furthermore, the existence of PCBM agglomerates as electron acceptor-like traps resulted in a shift of Vth in the positive and reversible directions depending on the magnitude of gate bias (V-bias) as well as duration of time bias (T-bias). The device operation changed into normally-on (depletion-accumulation) mode upon positive Vbias as the duration of Tbias was increased, which attributes to the formation of a conductive layer at the pentacene-fullerene interface. Moreover, the recovery of Vth was further enhanced by a high negative V-bias for a short duration. In addition, the mobility was minimally affected by both Vbias conditions.
These agents are beginning to find a role in routine use for surgery in both the elective and emergent settings. This article reviews the mechanisms of different haemostasis methods and the current evidence for their use in neurosurgery, with a focus on the more recently introduced gelatin-thrombin matrix sealant (Floseal (R) [Baxter, Hayward, CA, USA]). (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1,
the main risk factor for metastases is pancreatic turnout size. We and others recommend limiting surgery to non-functioning pancreatic tumors >= 20 mm or growing, based on their size measured with endoscopic ultrasonography. Because endoscopic ultrasonography is GSI-IX mouse invasive, we compared endoscopic ultrasonography
(EUS) to non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of pancreatic tumors >= 10 mm in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients.\n\nMethods: A prospective study was performed in nine participating centres; 90 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 underwent EUS and MRI with gadolinium infusion. Gastroenterologists and radiologists were blinded to the results, magnetic resonance images were reviewed centrally.\n\nResults: EUS detected 86 tumors >= 10 mm, and 48(53.3%) patients had at least one tumour >= 10 mm. MRI detected 67 tumors >= 10 mm, and 46(51.1%) STA-9090 cell line patients had at least one tumour >= 10 mm. EUS and MRI agreement was moderate for detection of tumors >= 10 mm (Kappa coefficient = 0.49), and for selection of patients LY3023414 cell line with tumours >= 10
mm (Kappa coefficient = 0.55). EUS and MRI missed 11/24 and 4/24 lesions >= 20 mm, respectively. EUS failed to identify 9/57 (15.7%) patients with pancreatic tumours >= 10 mm, and MRI failed to identify 11/57 (19.3%) patients with pancreatic tumors >= 10 mm.\n\nConclusions: EUS and MRI are complementary and should be performed at initial evaluation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients. Whether follow-up should be based on either technique or both, requires further evaluation. (C) 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Aims: Hepatitis E virus is a major cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in developing countries.\n\nMethods: Literature search using the Medline (1966 to July 2008), EMBASE/Excerpta Medica (1980 to July 2008), OVID (1966 to July 2008), Google Scholar (for Local websites; and medical journals), SID, websites of Iranian universities and IranMedex was done.\n\nResults: The prevalence of hepatitis E infection in Iranian general population is increasing significantly with age. The prevalence in Iran is less than Pakistan. Consumption of contaminated water is an important mean for the spread of this enteric transmissible disease. Pigs and animals have a low role in HEV infection in our region.
“Gastrin, cholecystokinin2 receptor (CCK2R), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been implicated in the carcinogenesis and progression R115777 of gastric cancer. Our study demonstrated that antagonist or siRNA against CCK2R blocked amidated gastrin (G17)-induced activation of STAT3 and Akt in gastric
cancer cell lines. G17-increased COX-2 expression and cell proliferation were effectively blocked by CCK2R antagonist and inhibitors of JAK2 and PI3K. In addition, knockdown of STAT3 expression significantly attenuated G17-induced PI3K/Akt activation, COX-2 expression, and cell proliferation. These results suggest that CCK2R-mediated COX-2 up-regulation via JAK2/STAT3/PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in the proliferative effect of G17 on human gastric cancer cells. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Developing materials that are effective against sexually transmitted pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and HIV-1 is challenging both in terms of material selection and improving bio-membrane and cellular permeability at desired mucosa! selleckchem sites. Here, we engineered the prokaryotic bacterial virus (M13 phage) carrying two functional peptides, integrin binding peptide (RGD) and a segment of the polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) from Ct, as a phage-based material that
can ameliorate Ct infection. Ct is a globally prevalent human pathogen for which there are no effective vaccines or microbicides. We show that engineered phage stably express both RGD motifs and Ct peptides and traffic intracellularly and into the lumen of the inclusion in which the organism resides within the host cell. Engineered phage were able to significantly reduce Ct infection in both HeLa and primary endocervical cells compared with Ct infection alone. selleck products Polyclonal antibodies raised against PmpD and co-incubated with constructs
prior to infection did not alter the course of infection, indicating that PmpD is responsible for the observed decrease in Ct infection. Our results suggest that phage-based design approaches to vector delivery that overcome mucosal cellular barriers may be effective in preventing Ct and other sexually transmitted pathogens. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Two modified beta-cyclodextrins, H-2 and H-3, having a flexible appended moiety were studied for the chiral discrimination of the enantiomers of various amino acids by means of fluorescence as signaling option. These hosts quenched the fluorescence intensities of amino acids upon binding. The D-enantiomers were better recognized by these hosts. The association constants (K-s) and enantioselectivity factors (a) of the host guest complexes were calculated.”
“Background: Enhanced attraction of selective vascular reparative cells is of great importance in order to increase vascular patency after endovascular treatments.
This study aimed to examine the effect of postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl on orthostatic intolerance and delayed ambulation in patients after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery.\n\nIn this retrospective cohort study, data from 195 consecutive patients who underwent gynecologic laparoscopic surgery were analyzed to evaluate the association between postoperative IWR-1-endo cell line continuous infusion of fentanyl and the incidence of orthostatic intolerance or delayed ambulation. The primary outcome was defined as delayed ambulation, an inability to ambulate on postoperative day 1. The secondary
outcome was defined as orthostatic intolerance and symptoms associated with ambulatory challenge, including dizziness, nausea and vomiting, feeling hot, blurred vision, and eventual syncope. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of delayed ambulation and orthostatic intolerance.\n\nThere were 24 cases Cl-amidine Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor with documented orthostatic intolerance and 5 with delayed ambulation. After multivariate logistic regression modeling, postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl was found to be significantly associated
with both orthostatic intolerance [adjusted odds ratio (95 % confidence interval), 34.78 (11.12-131.72)] and delayed ambulation [adjusted odds ratio (95 % confidence interval), 8.37 (1.23-72.15)].\n\nPostoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl is associated with increased orthostatic intolerance and delayed ambulation in patients after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery.”
“Background: Provision of quality emergency obstetric care relies upon the presence of skilled health attendants working in an environment where drugs and medical supplies are available when needed and in adequate quantity and of assured quality. This study aimed to describe the experience of rural health facility managers in ensuring the timely availability of drugs and medical supplies for emergency obstetric care (EmOC).\n\nMethods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 17 health facility managers: 14 from dispensaries and three from health centers.
Two members of the Council Health Management Team and one member of the Council Health Service Board were also interviewed. A survey of CDK inhibitors in clinical trials health facilities was conducted to supplement the data. All the materials were analysed using a qualitative thematic analysis approach.\n\nResults: Participants reported on the unreliability of obtaining drugs and medical supplies for EmOC; this was supported by the absence of essential items observed during the facility survey. The unreliability of obtaining drugs and medical supplies was reported to result in the provision of untimely and suboptimal EmOC services. An insufficient budget for drugs from central government, lack of accountability within the supply system and a bureaucratic process of accessing the locally mobilized drug fund were reported to contribute to the current situation.
Both these second trimester abortions were performed by untrained village abortionists for sex selection and unwanted pregnancy in an unmarried adolescent girl. The management in the unmarried girl was further complicated due to undisclosed history of abortion. Conclusion These reports of unsafe abortion highlight the need for clinicians to have
a high index of suspicion for an undisclosed abortion when treating any morbid woman of reproductive age with a bizarre abdominal clinical picture.”
“The complex interaction between cancer cells and the microenvironment plays an essential role in all stages of tumourigenesis. Despite the significance of this interplay, alterations S3I-201 purchase in protein composition underlying tumourstroma interactions are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify stromal proteins with clinical relevance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A list encompassing 203 stromal candidate genes was compiled based on gene expression array data and available literature. The protein expression NCT-501 mouse of these genes in human NSCLC was screened using the Human Protein Atlas. Twelve
proteins were selected that showed a differential stromal staining pattern (BGN, CD99, DCN, EMILIN1, FBN1, PDGFRB, PDLIM5, POSTN, SPARC, TAGLN, TNC and VCAN). The corresponding antibodies were applied on tissue microarrays, including 190 NSCLC samples, and stromal staining was correlated with clinical parameters. Higher stromal expression Tariquidar of CD99 was associated with better prognosis in the univariate (p = 0.037) and multivariate (p = 0.039) analysis. The association was independent from the proportion of tumour stroma, the fraction of inflammatory cells and clinical and pathological parameters like stage, performance status and tumour histology. The prognostic impact of stromal CD99 protein expression was confirmed in an independent cohort of 240 NSCLC patients (p = 0.008). Furthermore,
double-staining confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that CD99 was expressed in stromal lymphocytes as well as in cancer-associated fibroblasts. Based on a comprehensive screening strategy the membrane protein CD99 was identified as a novel stromal factor with clinical relevance. The results support the concept that stromal properties have an important impact on tumour progression.”
“The effect of glutathione S-transferase variants on pediatric busulfan metabolism was investigated by noncompartmental and population pharmacokinetic modeling. Twenty-nine children who underwent related or unrelated bone marrow or umbilical cord blood hematopoietic cell transplant were retrospectively studied. GSTA1, GSTP1, and GSTM1 variants were explored for their ejects on busulfan exposures. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses showed that carriers of GSTA1*B had a 2.6-fold highor busulfan area under the curve and concentration at steady state compared with noncarriers (P.01).
Needing help with tasks of daily living, back problems, arthritis, mental health conditions, age bigger than = 30 years, gastrointestinal conditions, low social support and noncommissioned member rank were associated with pain interference. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence for agencies and those supporting the well-being of Veterans, and inform longitudinal studies to better understand the determinants and life course effects of chronic pain in military Veterans.”
“Background: Mastectomy flap necrosis is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction
that impacts recovery time and reconstructive LDN-193189 success. Nitroglycerin ointment is a topical vasodilator that has been shown to improve skin flap survival in an animal model. The objective of this study was to Barasertib cost evaluate whether the application of nitroglycerin ointment to the breast skin after mastectomy and immediate reconstruction causes a decrease in the rate of mastectomy flap necrosis compared with placebo. Methods: This study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial and included patients aged 21 to 69 years undergoing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction at the University of British Columbia-affiliated hospitals (Vancouver,
British Columbia, Canada). Patients with a medical history that precluded the administration of nitroglycerin were excluded from the study. The target sample size was 400 patients. Nitroglycerin ointment (45 mg) or a placebo was applied to the mastectomy skin at the
time of surgical dressing. Results: The trial was stopped at the first interim analysis after 165 patients had been randomized (85 to the treatment group and 80 to the placebo group). Mastectomy flap necrosis developed in 27 patients (33.8 percent) receiving placebo and in 13 patients (15.3 percent) receiving nitroglycerin ointment; the between-group difference was 18.5 percent (p = 0.006; 95 percent CI, 5.3 to 31.0 percent). NSC23766 nmr Postoperative complications were similar in both groups [nitroglycerin, 22.4 percent (19 of 85); placebo, 28.8 percent (23 of 80)]. Conclusions: In patients undergoing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction, there was a marked reduction in mastectomy flap necrosis in patients who received nitroglycerin ointment. Nitroglycerin ointment application is a simple, safe, and effective way to help prevent mastectomy flap necrosis.”
“OBJECTIVES This study examined whether coronary angioscopy-verified in-stent yellow plaque at 1 year after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is associated with future event of very late stent failure (VLSF). BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis detected as yellow plaque by angioscopy has been associated with future events of acute coronary syndrome. Development of in-stent neoatherosclerosis is a probable mechanism of VLSF. METHODS This study included 360 consecutive patients who received successful angioscopic examination at 1 year after implantation of a DES.
This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators – small beetles and weevils – effectively
contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their https://www.selleckchem.com/products/LDE225(NVP-LDE225).html pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event.”
“OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between the Computed tomography (CT) densities, sizes of otosclerotic foci, and the bone conduction threshold (BC) and air bone gap (ABG) in cases of otosclerosis as well as between the lesions sizes and their CT densities. MATERIALS and METHODS: We included CT examinations of the temporal bones of 25 patients (34 ears, 9 cases were VX-809 ic50 bilateral) with clinical and audiological diagnosis of otosclerosis. We measured the otosclerotic
foci in their maximum dimensions as well as their CT densities and correlated them to the BC thresholds and ABG. We also studied the correlation between the sizes of the otosclerotic foci and their CT densities. RESULTS: There were no significant statistical correlations between the lesion size or CT density to either the BC or ABG in any GSI-IX of the CT grades of otosclerosis or any statistical correlation between the CT density and lesion size in any of the grades of otosclerosis. CONCLUSION: CT is essential, in addition to clinical and audiological tests, in confirming the diagnosis of otosclerosis; however, neither the sizes of the lesions nor their CT densities correlate with the hearing deficit. The
lesions sizes do not correlate to their CT densities, and there is no statistically significant difference in CT densities of early and extensive grades.”
“In this study, in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of buparvaquone was evaluated against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Pakistani Leishmania tropica isolate KWH23 in relation to the current standard chemotherapy for leishmaniasis (sodium stibogluconate, sodium stibogluconate, amphotericin B and miltefosine). For buparvaquone, mean % inhibition in intracellular amastigotes at four different concentrations (1.35 mu M, 0.51 mu M, 0.17 mu M and 0.057 mu M) was 78%, 44%, 20% and 14% respectively, whereas, against promastigotes it was 89%, 77%, 45% and 35% respectively. IC50 values calculated to estimate the anti-leishmanial activity of buparvaquone against intra-cellular amastigotes and promastigotes was 0.53 mu M (95% C.I. = 0.32-0.89) and 0.15 mu M (95% C.I. = 0.01-1.84) respectively.
1 +/- 0.9 mm. Mean volume of resected orbital fat was 4.4 +/- 1.2 mL. Mean retrobulbar volume change in computed tomographic imaging was 3.2 +/- 1.0 cm(3). The change in retrobulbar volume was correlated strongly with proptosis reduction and volume of resected orbital
IPI-145 fat. Linear regression revealed the following equation for Retrobulbar volume change: 0.546 x Hertel change + 0.945 or 0.293 x Volume of resected orbital fat + 1.917.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Fatty decompression can reduce proptosis for patients with disfiguring Graves ophthalmopathy. Because of the close correlation of retrobulbar volume change with volume of resected orbital fat and proptosis reduction, we propose that orbital fat removal may be accompanied by decreased retrobulbar volume after fatty decompression. Evidence of decreased
retrobulbar volume may result in effective proptosis reduction. (Am J Ophthalmol 2011;151:465-469. (C) 2011 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.)”
“Background. There are few data on outcomes after surgical treatment for recurrent thymic tumors. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare long-term outcomes of treatments for recurrent thymic tumors.\n\nMethods. Between January 1956 and December 2009, 344 thymic tumors were surgically resected check details (309 thymomas, 22 thymic carcinomas, 12 thymic carcinoids, and 1 thymolipoma). There were 48 recurrences (13.9%): 30 thymomas, 9 thymic carcinomas, and 9 thymic carcinoids. There were 27 men and 21 women with a median age of 51 years (range, 27 to 83). Retrospective chart review was performed. Relevant factors for recurrence as well as survival and progression-free interval were analyzed.\n\nResults. The median follow-up interval from the initial operation was 83 months (range, 9 to 515). Recurrence adversely affected overall survival in surgically resected thymic
tumors (p = 0.0014). In multivariate analysis, the initial Masaoka stage, incomplete resection, and World Health Organization histology were significant risk factors for recurrence. In multivariate analysis, only surgical management was associated with prolonged survival see more p = 0.0038) and improved progression-free interval (p = 0.0378) in recurrent thymoma. Five-year survival after recurrent thymoma was 54%. For recurrent thymic carcinoma, surgery did not improve survival. For these patients, chemotherapy was associated with improved progression-free interval after recurrence (p = 0.0295). There were no 5-year survivors of recurrent thymic carcinoma.\n\nConclusions. Our data suggest that surgical management is associated with better outcome and is the treatment of choice for recurrent thymoma. For recurrent thymic carcinoma, surgical management has a very limited role, and chemotherapy appears to be a more effective treatment modality.”
“In multi-player games n individuals interact in any one encounter and derive a payoff from that interaction.
The germinating seedlings were crushed and tissue mass was put on callusing medium containing MS with BA+2,4-D (each 3 mg/liter). After six weeks, the calli were transferred to MS+BA (4mg/liter) + IBA (1mg/liter). The developed plantlets were separated and cultured on MS containing
BA and IBA (each @ 0.5mg/liter). The plantlets were transferred to pots under 100% humidity during initial weaning period, acclimatized and grown as normal plants.”
“The nuclear pore complex (NPC) has dual roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport and chromatin organization. In many selleck chemical eukaryotes the coiled-coil Mlp/Tpr proteins of the NPC nuclear basket have specific functions in interactions with chromatin and defining specialized regions of active
transcription, whereas Mlp2 associates with the mitotic spindle/NPC in a cell cycle-dependent manner. We previously identified two putative Mlp-related proteins in African trypanosomes, TbNup110 and TbNup92, the latter Fludarabinum of which associates with the spindle. We now provide evidence for independent ancestry for TbNup92/TbNup110 and Mlp/Tpr proteins. However, TbNup92 is required for correct chromosome segregation, with knockout cells exhibiting microaneuploidy and lowered fidelity of telomere segregation. Further, TbNup92 is intimately associated with the mitotic spindle and spindle anchor site but apparently has minimal roles in control of gene transcription, indicating that TbNup92 lacks major barrier activity. TbNup92 therefore acts as a functional analogue of Mlp/Tpr proteins, and, together with the lamina analogue NUP-1, represents a cohort of novel proteins operating at the nuclear periphery of trypanosomes, uncovering complex evolutionary trajectories for the NPC and nuclear lamina.”
“This was a longitudinal study carried out during a period over 2 years with a cohort of 946 individuals of both sexes, aged 1 year and older, from an endemic area
of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Para State, Brazil. The object was to analyze the transmission dynamics of human Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi find more infection based principally on the prevalence and incidence. For diagnosis of the infection, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and leishmanin skin test (LST) were performed with amastigote and promastigote antigens of the parasite, respectively. The prevalence by LST (11.2%) was higher (p < 0.0001) than that (3.4%) by IFAT, and the combined prevalence by both tests was 12.6%. The incidences by LST were also higher (p < 0.05) than those by IFAT at 6 (4.7% A- 0.6%), 12 (4.7% A- 2.7%), and 24 months (2.9% A- 0.3%). Moreover, there were no differences (p > 0.05) between the combined incidences by both tests on the same point surveys, 5.2%, 6.3%, and 3.6%.