4% “
“Gastrin, cholecystokinin2 receptor (CCK2R), and cycloo

“Gastrin, cholecystokinin2 receptor (CCK2R), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been implicated in the carcinogenesis and progression R115777 of gastric cancer. Our study demonstrated that antagonist or siRNA against CCK2R blocked amidated gastrin (G17)-induced activation of STAT3 and Akt in gastric

cancer cell lines. G17-increased COX-2 expression and cell proliferation were effectively blocked by CCK2R antagonist and inhibitors of JAK2 and PI3K. In addition, knockdown of STAT3 expression significantly attenuated G17-induced PI3K/Akt activation, COX-2 expression, and cell proliferation. These results suggest that CCK2R-mediated COX-2 up-regulation via JAK2/STAT3/PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in the proliferative effect of G17 on human gastric cancer cells. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Developing materials that are effective against sexually transmitted pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and HIV-1 is challenging both in terms of material selection and improving bio-membrane and cellular permeability at desired mucosa! selleckchem sites. Here, we engineered the prokaryotic bacterial virus (M13 phage) carrying two functional peptides, integrin binding peptide (RGD) and a segment of the polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) from Ct, as a phage-based material that

can ameliorate Ct infection. Ct is a globally prevalent human pathogen for which there are no effective vaccines or microbicides. We show that engineered phage stably express both RGD motifs and Ct peptides and traffic intracellularly and into the lumen of the inclusion in which the organism resides within the host cell. Engineered phage were able to significantly reduce Ct infection in both HeLa and primary endocervical cells compared with Ct infection alone. selleck products Polyclonal antibodies raised against PmpD and co-incubated with constructs

prior to infection did not alter the course of infection, indicating that PmpD is responsible for the observed decrease in Ct infection. Our results suggest that phage-based design approaches to vector delivery that overcome mucosal cellular barriers may be effective in preventing Ct and other sexually transmitted pathogens. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Two modified beta-cyclodextrins, H-2 and H-3, having a flexible appended moiety were studied for the chiral discrimination of the enantiomers of various amino acids by means of fluorescence as signaling option. These hosts quenched the fluorescence intensities of amino acids upon binding. The D-enantiomers were better recognized by these hosts. The association constants (K-s) and enantioselectivity factors (a) of the host guest complexes were calculated.”
“Background: Enhanced attraction of selective vascular reparative cells is of great importance in order to increase vascular patency after endovascular treatments.

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