“Loss of body weight is a common (and the most serious) se


“Loss of body weight is a common (and the most serious) sequela after gastrectomy. It impairs quality of life, increases various diseases including infection, and may affect long-term survival. Ghrelin, an intrinsic ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was discovered in the stomach in 1999. In addition to growth hormone secretion, ghrelin has pleiotropic functions including appetite stimulation, increasing bowel movement and absorption, and anti-inflammatory reactions. In consequence, ghrelin comprehensively leads positive energy balance and weight gain. The fundic gland of the stomach produces the majority of ghrelin,

and plasma ghrelin declines to 10-30 % of the preoperative level after total gastrectomy and 50-70 % after AZD1152 Cell Cycle inhibitor distal gastrectomy. Although plasma ghrelin is never restored after total gastrectomy, it gradually recovers to the preoperative level within a few years after distal gastrectomy. Chronic gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori infection and vagotomy are additional factors that perturb

the ghrelin secretion of gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy. A randomized clinical trial that revealed that recombinant ghrelin administration successfully increased both food intake and appetite, and ameliorated weight loss after total gastrectomy. Ghrelin administration could thus be a promising strategy to transiently improve the nutritional status of patients who who have undergone gastrectomy, but its effect in the long term remains unclear. Further studies are warranted to elucidate Sapitinib mouse the mechanism of ghrelin and to create and evaluate the analogs that could be administered orally or subcutaneously.”
“Genetic and biomarker studies in patients have identified the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) and its associated polysialic acid (PSA) as a susceptibility factors for schizophrenia. NCAM and polysialtransferase see more mutant mice have been generated that may serve as animal models for this disorder and allow to investigate

underlying neurodevelopmental alterations. Indeed, schizophrenia-relevant morphological, cognitive and emotional deficits have been observed in these mutants. Here we studied social interaction and attention of NCAM null mutant (NCAM(-/-)) mice as further hallmarks of schizophrenia. Nest building, which is generally associated with social behavior in rodents, was severely impaired, as NCAM(-/-) mice continuously collected smaller amounts of nest building material than their wild type littermates and built nests of poorer quality. However, social approach tested in a three-compartment-box was not affected and latent inhibition of Pavlovian fear memory was not disturbed in NCAM(-/-) mice. Although NCAM deficient mice do not display a typical schizophrenia-like phenotype, they may be useful for studying specific endophenotypes with relevance to the disease.

Polytomous logistic regression identified correlates of treatment

Polytomous logistic regression identified correlates of treatment approaches including sociodemographics and clinical/functional correlates.

Results: CAM use was prevalent (47%), with 24% reporting use of both CAM and conventional medication approaches. Multi-joint OA was correlated with all treatments (adjusted odds ratios (aOR) conventional medications only: 1.62; CAM only: 1.37 and both: 2.16). X-ray evidence of severe narrowing (OARSI grade 3) was associated with use of glucosamine/chondroitin (aOR: 2.20) and use of both (aOR: 1.98). The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC)-Pain Score was correlated with conventional medication use, either alone (aOR: 1.28) or in combination with CAM

(aOR: 1.41 per one AG-881 standard deviation change). Knee Outcomes in Osteoarthritis Survey (KOOS)-Quality of Life (QOL) and Short Form (SF)-12 Physical Scale scores were inversely related to all treatments.

Conclusion: CAM is commonly used to treat joint and arthritis pain among persons with knee OA. The extent to which these treatments are effective in managing symptoms and slowing disease progression remains to be proven. (C) 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background-

The Relaxin for the Treatment of Acute Heart Failure (RELAX-AHF) trial enrolled 1161 patients admitted to the hospital for acute heart failure (AHF) to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of serelaxin, a recombinant form of human relaxin-2. We characterized how representative RELAX-AHF clinical trial enrollees were to those patients with AHF found in STA-9090 international registries.

Methods and Results-

We examined 196 770 AHF admissions from the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry-United States and Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry-International registries. Patients were considered RELAX-AHF-type if they met the following criteria: discharge diagnosis of heart failure, systolic blood pressure > 125 mm Hg, dyspnea at rest or with mild exertion, intravenous diuretic use, glomerular filtration rate of 30 to 75 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), hemoglobin > 8 g/dL, and no use of intravenous inotropes or vasopressors.

Baseline find more characteristics and treatments of RELAX-AHF-type and non-RELAX-AHF-type patients were compared. A Cox model was used to evaluate inpatient mortality. Among both Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry-United States and Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry-International registries, 20.7% (n=38 485) and 16.2% (n=1749) of patients met basic criteria for RELAX-AHF entry, respectively. These patients were more likely to be older, be women, have a previous history of hypertension, have preserved ejection fraction, and have better renal function. In-hospital mortality was lower in RELAX-AHF-type than in non-RELAX-AHF-type patients, even after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.

Twenty dogs scheduled for PA were intramuscularly sedated with ac

Twenty dogs scheduled for PA were intramuscularly sedated with acepromazine (0.03 mg/kg), general anesthesia was intravenously (IV) induced with thiopental (10 mg/kg) and, after intubation, maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. In 10 dogs (GIVRA) IVRA was performed on the injured limb administering 0.6 ml/kg of 0.5% lidocaine. In 10 dogs (GBPB) the BPB was performed at the axillary level with the help of a nerve stimulator and 0.3 ml/kg of a 1:1 solution of 2% lidocaine and 1% ropivacaine was injected. During surgery fentanyl (0.002

mg/kg IV) was administered if there was a 15% increase of HR and/or MAP compared to the values before surgical ERK inhibitor price stimulation. All the standard cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were continuously monitored during surgery. The duration of surgery and the time of extubation were recorded. Data were compared with a 1-way ANOVA test (P < 0.05). No patients required fentanyl administration during surgery. All the recorded parameters were similar in the two groups. The two techniques were similar in providing intra-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing see more orthopaedic surgery. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Nocardia brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular

microorganism that produces a human chronic infection known as actinomycetoma. Human and mouse anti-N. brasiliensis antibody response identify P24, P26 and P61 immunodominant antigens. In this work, we generated immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to immunodominant P61 antigen. The monoclonal IgM (NbM1) and IgG2a (NbG1) antibodies were assessed for their in vitro bactericidal activity, in vivo protective effect and ability to block catalase activity. These mAbs specifically recognized P61, but they did not inhibit its enzyme activity. The in vitro

bactericidal effect of NbG1 was higher than the killing ability of the IgM mAb. In vivo experiments with a murine model of experimental infection with N. brasiliensis injected into rear footpads was used to test the effect of NbM1 and NbG1. The negative untreated group developed a chronic actinomycetoma within 4 weeks. IgM mAbs conferred protection to GSK2399872A research buy BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. IgG mAb lacked this protective effect. IgM mAb showed a dose-response correlation between antibody concentration and lesion size. These results demonstrate that humoral immune response mediated by antigen-specific IgM antibody protects against an intracellular bacterial infection.”
“Biological complexity, inaccessible anatomical location, nonspecific symptoms, lack of a screening biomarker, advanced disease at presentation and drug resistance epitomise pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) as a poorprognosis, lethal disease.

However, most of the participants have not received any training

However, most of the participants have not received any training on how to use ACT and how to report adverse effects arising from the use of

Compound Library ic50 ACT. There is need for more training of health care professionals to ensure correct and effective use of ACT.”
“These days an alternative to soft capsules is liquid-filled hard capsules. Their filling technology was investigated earlier with highly viscous formulations, while hardly any academic research focused on low-viscosity systems. Accordingly, this work addressed the filling of such oils that are splashing during the dosing process. It was aimed to first study capsule filling, using middle-chain triglycerides as reference oil, in order to then evaluate the concept of a new theoretical splashing degree for different oils. A laboratory-scale Kinase Inhibitor Library filling machine was used that included capsule sealing. Thus, the liquid encapsulation by microspray technology was employed to seal the dosage form. As a result of the study with reference oil, the filling volume and the temperature were found to be significant for the rate of leaking capsules. The filling volume was also important for weight variability of the capsules. However, most critical for this variability was the diameter of the filling nozzle. We proposed a power law for the coefficient of weight variability as a function of the nozzle diameter and the obtained exponent agreed with the proposed theory. Subsequently, a comparison of different

oils revealed that the relative splashing degree shared a correlation with the coefficient of the capsule weight variability (Pearson product moment correlation of r = 0.990). The novel theoretical concept was therefore found to be predictive for weight variability of the filled capsules. Finally, guidance was provided for the process development of liquid-filled capsules using low-viscosity oils.”
“Monoalkoxysubstituted and dialkoxysubstitued

thiophene monomers were synthesized by the nucleophilic substitution and transetherification reactions. Electrochemical homopolymerization of 3-octyloxythiophene (OOT) and 3,4-dioctyloxythiophene (DOOT), copolymerization of OOT with DOOT were performed via potentiodynamic and KU-55933 order potentiostatic methods in the supporting electrolyte. Both the copolymer and homopolymers were characterized via cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and spectroelectrochemical analysis. In the redox process of the polymers, it was linear relationship between the peak current and the scanning rate in their cyclic voltammograms. The copolymer of P(OOT-co-DOOT) showed obvious change of color between red and bright blue in reduced and oxidized states, that has a great difference with the homopolymers. The morphology studies indicated that the electrochemical deposition of P(OOT-co-DOOT) proceeds via a mechanism of nucleation and two-dimensional growth. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Patient demographics,

anesthetic technique, perioperative

Patient demographics,

anesthetic technique, perioperative monitoring and complications were analyzed.

Results:

General anesthesia was used in 94% of children. Regional anesthesia was used in 1.7% of children at CNHU and 17% of children at Hopital de la Mere et de l’Enfant Lagune. Inhalational induction was the commonest technique used. Halothane PF-00299804 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor was the only inhalational agent available for induction. Seventy-two percent of children having general anesthesia were intubated. Muscle relaxation was used in 48% of cases, only with pancuronium. The available perioperative monitoring equipment was not used regularly. All children having general anesthesia breathed spontaneously with manual assistance. There were eight cardiac arrests recorded, giving an incidence of 156 cardiac arrests per 10 000 anesthetics. Hypoxia was the commonest cause of cardiac arrest. The mortality associated with cardiac arrest was very high (62%).

There were three prognostic factors that predicted a poor outcome: age < 1 year, emergency surgery and an ASA score of three or more.

Conclusion:

Pediatric anesthesia in the two University Hospitals is far from satisfactory. Morbidity and mortality are unacceptably high. Suggestions are made to improve the safety of children undergoing anesthesia.”
“Background: Volume management remains a challenging component of caring for the critically ill. Renal failure complicates fluid management. We sought to identify relationships between delta blood volume and physiology-based JPH203 ic50 targets for both Autophagy Compound Library purchase the adequacy of left ventricular filling (stroke volume index [SVI]) and preload

dependency (stroke volume variability [SVV]) in patients undergoing dialysis in the intensive care unit.

Methods: Patients undergoing dialysis with an arterial line in place were eligible. Delta blood volume was measured during dialysis along with simultaneous SVI and SW via an arterial pressure cardiac output monitor. Patients were dichotomized as “”negative”" fluid strategy if fluid was removed, or “”positive”" fluid strategy if fluid was added during renal replacement therapy. Delta blood volume’s association with SVI and SVV was examined separately by fluid strategy group.

Results: A total of 26 patients (11 continuous and 15 intermittent dialysis) were investigated. Compared with that in patients with negative fluid strategy, SVV was significantly higher at baseline in patients with positive fluid strategy, while baseline SVI was significantly lower. Fluid removal was associated with significant increases to SVV in both strategy groups. Fluid removal was associated with significant decreases to SVI, and this effect was similar regardless of fluid strategy.

At longer time-points, we observed the formation of a homogeneous

At longer time-points, we observed the formation of a homogeneous dentin bridge at the injury BMS-777607 mw site, secreted by cells displaying an odontoblastic phenotype. In contrast, the reparative

tissue induced by Ca(OH)(2) showed porous organization, suggesting a reparative process different from those induced by calcium silicate cements. Analysis of these data suggests that the evaluated cement can be used for direct pulp-capping.”
“Development of live-attenuated human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) vaccines has proven to be difficult. Several vaccine candidates were found to be over-attenuated and displayed limited immunogenicity. Recently, we identified three synthetic cationic lipopeptides that enhanced paramyxovirus infections in vitro. The infection enhancement proved to be mediated by enhanced

virus binding to target cells. We hypothesized that these lipopeptides can be used as adjuvants to promote immune responses induced by live-attenuated paramyxovirus vaccines. This hypothesis was tested in a vaccination and challenge model in cotton rats, using a previously described recombinant live-attenuated candidate HRSV vaccine lacking the gene encoding the G glycoprotein (rHRSV Delta G). Surprisingly, intranasal vaccination of cotton rats with rHRSV.G formulated in infection-enhancing lipopeptides FDA-approved Drug Library high throughput resulted in reduced virus loads in nasopharyngeal lavages, reduced seroconversion levels and reduced protection from wild-type HRSV challenge. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate the feasibility of lipopeptides as adjuvants for a candidate live-attenuated HRSV vaccine in the cotton rat model.”
“Novel approaches are required to improve clinical this website outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease

(CHD). Ischemic conditioning-the practice of applying brief episodes of nonlethal ischemia and reperfusion to confer protection against a sustained episode of lethal ischemia and reperfusion injury-is one potential therapeutic strategy. Importantly, the protective stimulus can be applied before (ischemic preconditioning) or after (ischemic perconditioning) onset of the sustained episode of lethal ischemia, or even at the onset of myocardial reperfusion (ischemic postconditioning). Furthermore, the protective stimulus can be applied noninvasively by placing a blood-pressure cuff on an upper or lower limb to induce brief episodes of nonlethal ischemia and reperfusion (remote ischemic conditioning), a finding that has greatly facilitated the translation of ischemic conditioning to various clinical settings. In addition to mechanical approaches, elucidation of the signal-transduction pathways underlying ischemic conditioning has identified several novel targets for pharmacological conditioning.

The A(260/280) absorbance ratios of isolated DNA were approximate

The A(260/280) absorbance ratios of isolated DNA were approximately 1.7-1.9, demonstrating that the

DNA fraction is pure and can be used for analysis. Additionally, the A(260/230) values were higher than 1.6, demonstrating negligible contamination by polysaccharides. The DNA isolated by Selleckchem Gilteritinib this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could be applied to other organisms that have similar substances that hinder DNA extraction. The main advantages of the method are that the mycelium is directly recovered from culture medium and it does not require the use of expensive and specialized equipment.”
“Epilepsy clinical, academic, and human service professionals (N=101) were surveyed regarding the challenges people with epilepsy face managing their condition. 30% of the respondents had personal experience with epilepsy. Interviews were transcribed and coded into themes. Response differences

by profession and personal experience were examined using chi-squared tests. The two greatest challenges reported most frequently for people with epilepsy were finding high quality health care and managing selleck inhibitor psychological and emotional effects. The two most important epilepsy outcomes were seizure control and quality of life. The two greatest challenges facing clinicians were too little time with patients and limited clinical focus. The two main weaknesses in the field were insufficient research and narrow approaches to addressing epilepsy. Significant differences

in responses across professions were evident as were differences according to personal experience with epilepsy. Few clinicians cited quality of care as a major challenge (p<0.0001) compared to other professions. Few respondents with personal experience with epilepsy cited stigma as a challenge (p=0.006). (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“SOX2, a universal marker of pluripotent stem PCI-32765 inhibitor cells, is a transcription factor that helps control embryonic development in vertebrates; its expression persists in neural stem/progenitor cells into adulthood. Considering the critical role of the SOX2 transcription factor in the regulation of genes required for self-renewal and pluripotency of stem cells, we developed and characterized SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones. Using Southern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed integration and expression of exogenous SOX2 in three NT2/D1 cell clones. Overexpression of the SOX2 gene was detected in two of these clones. SOX2 overexpression in NT2/D1 cell clones resulted in altered expression of key pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG. Furthermore, SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones entered into retinoic acid-dependent neural differentiation, even when there was elevated SOX2 expression.

Methods: A total of 55 patients with positive results in MAST-CLA

Methods: A total of 55 patients with positive results in MAST-CLA

were tested using the MAST-immunoblot system. A total of 133 allergens that displayed discrepancies in MAST-CLA and MAST-immunoblot results were examined with the ImmunoCAP test.

Results: The positivity rates for 20 common allergens, as measured by MAST-CIA and MAST-immunoblot, were 53.4% and 19.5%, respectively. The agreement rate of MAST-CIA and ImmunoCAP (75.9%) results was higher than MAST-CIA and MAST-immunoblot (62.4%) results. The mean number of positive results for specific allergens per patient as measured by MAST-immunoblot and MAST-CIA were 5.6 and 15.9, respectively.

Conclusions: 3-deazaneplanocin A in vitro The higher agreement rate between ImmunoCAP and MAST-CIA results compared with MAST-CIA and MAST-immunoblot results was caused by

frequently occurring concurrent positive reactions to multiple allergens. The frequency of concurrent positive results and the number of allergens showing concurrent selleck chemicals positive results was lower in MAST-immunoblot than in MAST-CIA. Therefore, MAST-immunoblot may be helpful in the diagnosis of allergic disease and will decrease any confusion arising from concurrent positivity for multiple allergens.”
“OBJECTIVES: The management of chest tubes is one of the most critical aspects in patient care in thoracic surgery, and no consensus exists regarding the ideal chest tube management strategy.

METHODS: JNK-IN-8 ic50 Chest tube management protocols and their effects on chest tube therapy were compared at four German specialist thoracic surgery units. Altogether, 79 patients were stratified for underlying disease and type of surgery. A digital chest drainage system was applied to objectify the presence of air leakages.

RESULTS: In our analysis, the average length of drainage therapy was 4.9 +/- 2.8 days. Different chest tube management protocols resulted in a significant degree of scatter between units (P = 0.0348). Higher arbitrary postoperative suction levels (4 kPa) resulted in earlier chest

tube removal than lower suction levels (2 kPa) (4.2 +/- 2.4 vs 5.4 +/- 3.0 days, P = 0.06). Patient discharge following chest tube removal was delayed on average by 3.2 +/- 2.9 days. This delay was not correlated with the previous duration of chest tube therapy (Spearman’s rho=-0.15, P = 0.25) in contrast to the total length of hospital stay (rho = 0.59, P < 0.001).”
“The essential oil obtained from shade dried leaves of Aogostemon speciosus Benth. collected from Nilgiri hills of the Western Ghats, India was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Sixty three components representing 92.1% of the oil were identified. The main component of the oil was the sesquiterpene alcohol alpha-bisabolol (40.8%), which is of high value from therapeutic and perfumery point of view. Other major components of the essential oil were (E)-caryophyllene (4.5%), cubebol (5.3%) and delta-cadinene (4.5%).

The SEIQoL-DW was administered to 52 young adults with indicated

The SEIQoL-DW was administered to 52 young adults with indicated personality disorder, with 47 completing the measure, taking an average time of 27 min. Individual QoL was poor with a mean global index score of 55.07 (SD = 22.34). Individual

QoL areas formed five main domains-’Aspects of Daily Living’, ‘Relationships’, ‘Social Life and Leisure’, ‘Family’ and ‘Emotional and Physical Wellbeing’.

This study further extends the application of the SEIQoL-DW for use as a routine outcome measure within a busy service setting, although ways to accommodate administration time need to be considered. Poor QoL highlights the need for continued development of services to meet the needs of young adults SN-38 with indicated personality disorder.”
“Background: The effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis is limited by the lack of compliance whose determinants are not well known.

Methods: The compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis has been estimated and analysed by validated questionnaires administered before and after the short-term missions (about four months) in five tropical African countries of 2,093 French soldiers from 19 military companies involved in a prospective cohort study. “”Correct Poziotinib concentration compliance”" was defined as “”no

missed doses”" of daily drug intake during the entire mission and was analysed using multiple mixed-effect logistic regression model.

Results: The averaged prevalence rate of correct compliance was 46.2%, ranging from 9.6% to 76.6% according to the companies. Incorrect compliance was significantly associated with eveningness (p = 0.028), a medical history of clinical malaria (p < 0.001) and a perceived mosquito attractiveness inferior or superior to the others (p < 0.007). Correct compliance www.selleckchem.com/Proteasome.html was significantly associated with the systematic use of protective measures against mosquito bites (p < 0.001), the type of military operations (combat vs. training activities, p < 0.001) and other individual factors (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The identification of circumstances

and profiles of persons at higher risk of lack of compliance would pave the way to specifically targeted strategies aimed to improve compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis and, therefore, its effectiveness.”
“Response regulators are part of a two-component regulatory system. The type-A Arabidopsis response regulators act as negative regulators. To understand the function of type-A response regulators in the model monocot plant, rice (Japonica cultivar-group: Zhonghua11), we overexpressed two type-A OsRR genes, OsRR3 and OsRR5 (pACT1:OsRR3 and pACT1: OsRR5). We hoped to gain insight into their molecular function in cytokinin-signaling pathways. Both OsRR3 and OsRR5 overexpressors had longer roots and more lateral roots compared with Zhonghua11, when treated with exogenous cytokinin.

Data are presented as means +/- sd When data did not follow the

Data are presented as means +/- sd. When data did not follow the Gaussian distribution, the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (U-test) was used to compare the different groups at p < 0.05 level in the bilateral situation. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level (p < 0.05), total antioxidant capacity, lipid hydroperoxide level, total oxidative stress and plasma oxidative stress index (p < 0.01) increased significantly in the wrestlers. In conclusion, participating in wrestling training increased oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity when compared with untrained

controls.”
“Complete (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments of acoschimperoside P, 2′-acetate (1) and a new cardiac glycoside (2), isolated from the leaves

of Vallaris glabra, are described. Compound 1 was active in the assay for Hedgehog signaling inhibition. In further SB273005 experiments, this compound showed a strong cytotoxicity against human pancreatic (PANC1) and human prostate (DU145) cancer cells. The expression of GLI-related proteins (PTCH and BCL-2) in a dose-dependent manner was also inhibited by 1.”
“P>Plasma membrane, proton-coupled Group II sucrose symporters (SUT) mediate apoplastic phloem loading and sucrose efflux from source leaves in Arabidopsis and agricultural crop species that have been studied to date. We now report that the most abundantly expressed SUT isoform Vorinostat order in Populus tremula x alba, PtaSUT4, is a tonoplast (Group IV) symporter. PtaSUT4 transcripts were readily detected in conducting as well as mesophyll cells in stems and source leaves. In comparison, Group II orthologs PtaSUT1 and PtaSUT3 were very

weakly expressed in leaves. Both Group II and Group IV SUT genes were expressed in secondary stem xylem of Populus. Transgenic poplars with RNAi-suppressed PtaSUT4 exhibited increased leaf-to-stem biomass ratios, elevated sucrose content in source leaves and stems, and altered phenylpropanoid metabolism. Transcript abundance of several carbohydrate-active Z-DEVD-FMK research buy enzymes and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases was also altered in transgenic source leaves. Nitrogen-limitation led to a down-regulation of vacuolar invertases in all plants, which resulted in an augmentation of sucrose pooling and hexose depletion in source leaves and secondary xylem of the transgenic plants. These results are consistent with a major role for PtaSUT4 in orchestrating the intracellular partitioning, and consequently, the efflux of sucrose from source leaves and the utilization of sucrose by lateral and terminal sinks. Our findings also support the idea that PtaSUT4 modulates sucrose efflux and utilization in concert with plant N-status.”
“This study is aimed at determining the effect of aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaf on male fertility by evaluating some andrological parameters of male Wistar rat such as sperm parameters (spermatozoa count, motility and viability) and serum concentration of testosterone.