NN and MA were supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation grant 31003A_130735. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: File S1: Flow cytometry data. (XLS 137 KB) Additional SHP099 solubility dmso file 2: Figure S1: Variation in the expression of ptsG, mglB and rpsM reporters across different environments. The CV of log expression of PptsG-gfp (green), PmglB-gfp (blue) and PrpsM-gfp (red) was plotted against the mean log expression. Power regression was fitted to each dataset corresponding to the expression
of the same reporter across different environments. The individual curves of variation in the expression of ptsG and rpsM reporters showed negative associations between the mean expression and the
variation of expression across environments, whereas the mglB reporter showed a positive association. (TIFF 145 KB) Additional file 3: Text S1: Analysis of expression of fluorescent reporters in glucose-acetate mixtures. (PDF 57 KB) Additional file 4: Figure S2: Reporter expression in mixed-substrate environments. Expression of ptsG, mglB and acs reporters was measured in chemostats (D = 0.15 h-1) in mixed-substrate environments supplemented with 0.28 mM Glc and 0.28 mM Ac (green), or 2.8 mM Glc and 2.8 mM Ac (blue). The distributions were plotted together with the measurements of the reporter expression in the environments GDC-0449 mouse with only glucose in the feed (0.56 mM Glc – orange, and 5.6 mM
Glc – red). The fluorescence of the promoterless strain is presented in black. (TIFF 544 KB) Additional file 5: Figure S3: Expression of the pck reporter in different chemostat and batch conditions. Ppck-gfp fluorescence (indication of flux to gluconeogenesis) was measured in bacterial populations grown in chemostats (D = 0.15 h-1) and batch environments supplied with minimal media supplemented with only D-glucose, only sodium acetate or D-glucose plus sodium acetate. Again, background fluorescence is the fluorescence of the promoterless strain, depicted in black. The expression of the pck reporter was decreased in the exponential phase in glucose batch cultures in comparison PD184352 (CI-1040) to carbon-limited chemostats. (TIFF 757 KB) Additional file 6: Figure S4: Changes in gfp expression prior of reaching theoretical steady-state. Pacs-gfp fluorescence was measured for five independent replicates growing on different concentration of glucose in the feed. At time point of 0 hours, chemostat experiments were started at a minimal dilution rate of D = 0.14 h-1. After 24 hours, dilution rates were increased to D = 0.15 h-1. The fluorescence plots show gfp distribution in bacterial populations without gating, together with fluorescence of the promoterless strain depicted in black. All independent replicates showed reproducible measurements of GFP fluorescence after 3.6 volume turnovers at D = 0.15 h-1.