Stigmasterol terials and Methods , probes were found to be differentially expressed in the very severe vs. moderate sHPT comparison , 32 in the moderate-severe vs. moderate sHPT comparison, and 10 in the very severe vs. moderate-severe sHPT comparison . Overall, a widespread down-regulation of gene expression was observed, involving more than 80% of the genes. Only a minor percentage of genes were up-reg- of the qRT-PCR . Activation of ERK in parathyroid glands Dusp are protein phosphatases that dephosphorylate a specific MAPK, inhibiting its function. In particular, Dusp5 and Dusp6 specifically dephosphorylate and inactivate pERK1 and -2 .
Therefore, we analyzed the activation of ERK by immunohistochemistry analysis of ERK and pERK1/2 in paraffin-embedded parathyroid tissue. ERK staining was similar in all Tanshinone IIA sHPT groups and the reference group. However, the intensity of pERK staining increased significantly in moderate sHPT when compared with the reference group. Interestingly, pERK decreased as the severity of sHPT increased, and it was significantly reduced in the very severe sHPT group compared with the moderate sHPT group . Evaluation of the role of Dusp on PTH secretion To test whether Dusp might have a regulatory effect on parathyroid function, additional experiments were performed using parathyroid glands from normal rats cultured ex vivo . After 24 h in a medium containing 6 m M calcium showed the expected significant increase in PTH 6 Román-García et al.
Severe Hyperparathyroidism and Dusps Endocrinology, April 2, TABLE Gene expression purchase Gynostemma Extract dataset of the differentially expressed probes sorted by fold change, corresponding to the comparison of severe vs. moderate sHPT groups Probe , regulatory subunit 1B Metallothionein 3 Paired box gene 8 RAP1, GTPase-activating protein 1 Glutathione peroxidase 2 ST6 N -a Regulated endocrine-specific protein 18 Forkhead box E1 Sal-like 1 Thyroglobulin Dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase Calcitonin/calcitonin-related polypeptide, EGF-like-domain, multiple 6 Sodium channel, voltage-gated. type VII Thyroid peroxidase Complement factor B Thyroid transcription factor 1 Prolactin receptor TNF superfamily, member 13 Antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67 Fyn-related kinase Rac GTPase-activating protein 1 Ets variant gene S order Bibenzyl Mannosidase.
lysosomal M-phase phosphoprotein 1 Ets variant gene 5 Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 2 Bone morphogenetic protein 7 Cell division cycle 2 homolog A Cyclin B2 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C Purinergic receptor P2Y, G protein-coupled, 14 GH-regulated TBC protein 1 Serine peptidase inhibitor, clade B, member 5 Chloride channel calcium activated 6 Chaperonin subunit 6a Ribosomal protein micron L7 Arginase 1 Dusp5 -Family GTPase 1 MAPK kinase kinase kinase 1 Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, 2/ 3 subunit Presenilin Due to the elevated number of down-regulated genes , this table shows only the down-regulated probes that had a fold change lower.