All rights reserved “
“The UNFCCC mechanism for Reducing Emi

All rights reserved.”
“The UNFCCC mechanism for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) represents an unprecedented opportunity for the conservation of forest biodiversity. Nevertheless, there are widespread concerns surrounding the possibility of negative environmental outcomes if biodiversity is not given adequate consideration throughout the REDD+ process. We propose a general framework for incorporating biodiversity concerns into national REDD+ programmes based on well-established ecological principles and experiences. First, we identify how biodiversity distribution and threat data, together with data on

biodiversity responses to forest change and management, can be readily incorporated

into the strategic planning process for REDD+ in order to identify priority areas and activities for investment that will deliver returns for both carbon and biodiversity. Second, we propose Alvespimycin selleck inhibitor that assessments of changes in biodiversity following REDD+ implementation could be greatly facilitated by paralleling, where possible, the existing IPCC architecture for assessing carbon emissions. A three-tiered approach is proposed for biodiversity assessment, where lower tiers can provide a realistic starting point for countries with fewer data and lower technical capacities. Planning and assessment of biodiversity safeguards for REDD+ need not overburden an already encumbered UNFCCC process. Immediate progress

is already possible for a large number of developing countries, and a gradual, phased approach AG-014699 nmr to implementation would minimise risks and facilitate the protection of additional biodiversity benefits from REDD+ activities. Greater levels of coordination between the UNFCCC and CBD, as well as other agencies and stakeholder groups interested in forest conservation are needed if biodiversity safeguards are to be fully adopted and implemented. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Linear, one-binding-site or two-binding-site (N(+)) organifiers with two hydroxyl end groups were synthesized, and novel organoclays were prepared through a cation-exchange reaction between pristine sodium montmorillonite and the synthesized organifiers. After sonication of the as-prepared organoclay in N,N’-dimethylformamide for 10 min, the average size of the clay decreased to about 1 mu m. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the d-spacirtg of the silicate layers of the organoclay expanded from 1.1 to about 1.9 nm and the peak intensity decreased with the molecular weight of the organifier increasing. Polyurethane/clay nanocomposites were synthesized by a one-shot polymerization method. Both intercalated and exfoliated structures of the layered silicates in the polyurethane matrix were observed from transmission electron microscopy micrographs, and the d-spacing ranged from 4 to 10 nm.

Results: The mean age of the sample was 42 1 (11 5), mean CIR

\n\nResults: The mean age of the sample was 42.1 (11.5), mean CIRS total score was 4.7 (2.9), and mean number of categories endorsed was 3.4 (1.7). Medical burden showed a positive relationship with increasing age and with duration of illness. CIRS scores and number of organ/system categories endorsed were significantly higher in patients with more than 21 years of illness than

in patients with 0-9 years of illness (p <.0001) or with 10-20 years of illness (1) <.0001). Medical burden was related to duration of illness IPI-145 mouse even after controlling for age. The most frequently endorsed illness categories were cardiovascular disease, (with hypertension and hyperlipidemia being the most frequent conditions) and endocrine/metabolic (with obesity, thyroid dysfunction, and type 2 diabetes being the most common conditions).\n\nConclusions: Patients with bipolar disorder carry a substantial burden of general medical conditions, related to age and duration of illness. These results suggest that the development ALK signaling pathway and testing of specific interventions that target medical risk factors and medical burden in patients with bipolar disorder are urgently needed, especially early in the course of the illness, when patients appear to accumulate medical comorbidity at a rapid rate. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We describe how rice leaves are regionalized and regulated along the centralmarginal axis.

The shoot organization2 (sho2) mutant, a weak allele of SHOOTLESS4 that is a ZIPPY/ARGONAUTE7 homolog in rice, shows a variety of leaf abnormalities;

filamentous leaves, bi- or trifurcated leaves, separation of the filamentous structure from the leaf blade or deletion of the margin. All of these phenotypes can be interpreted as combinatorial defects in the growth of the central, lateral and marginal domains along the centralmarginal axis, on the condition that the growth of the central domain is predominant. The leaf founder cells for the lateral and marginal domains are recruited normally in sho2, indicating that sho2 is defective in the growth of leaf domains after the founder cells are recruited. The expression pattern of SHO2 in the outer layer of the shoot apical meristem and the adaxial surface of the leaf, as well as the altered expression of HD-ZIP III and ETTIN homologs in the central domain of sho2 leaves, suggest that normal this website development of the central domain is a prerequisite for the synchronous growth of the three domains. This synchrony is thought to be mediated by a small interfering RNA-dependent process.”
“The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation.

When the fluxes were averaged for a long time (i e , about 2 week

When the fluxes were averaged for a long time (i.e., about 2 weeks) the inferred fluxes Thiazovivin supplier and deposition velocities were in reasonable agreement with the measurements. Although averages over long periods showed good agreement, the measured deposition velocities were distributed in a wider range than those inferred by the model. An increased range of deposition velocities was associated with flux footprints from complex terrain. It

is possible that the agreements between measured and inferred fluxes or deposition velocities at the site are because the depositions of sulfate are largely controlled by surface factors rather than aerodynamic resistance. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“There has been an increase in interest in the use of altered peptides as antigen-specific therapeutic agents in autoimmune diseases. Here we investigated the inhibitory effect and possible mechanism of an altered influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA)-derived peptide in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice by immunisation with type II collagen (CII). Altered HA308-317, wild-type HA308-317 or irrelevant peptide was administered intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Clinical and histological scores

were assessed, and cytokine levels in the serum or supernatants from splenocytes were determined. The percentages of Th1 and Th2 cells in response to different peptides selleck chemicals llc were analysed by FACS both in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that intranasal administration of altered HA308-317 peptide significantly ameliorated CIA. The therapeutic effect of altered HA308-317 peptide was associated with a substantial decrease

in production of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, anti-CII IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies, and an markedly increase in production of IL-10 and IL-4 in serum or supernatants from splenocytes treated with altered HA308-317 peptide. The percentage of Th2 (CD4(+)IL-4(+)) cells was upregulated significantly by altered HA308-317 peptide with a decreased percentage of Th1 (T helper 1; CD4(+)INF-gamma(+)) cells both in vivo and in vitro. These selective HDAC inhibitors findings suggest that altered HA308-317 peptide might be a promising candidate for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. Cellular & Molecular Immunology (2011) 8, 348-358; doi: 10.1038/cmi.2011.5; published online 7 March 2011″
“The diacylglycerol kinase from E. coli transfers some of the gamma-phosphate of ATP to water as well as to diacylglycerol. We also demonstrate that glycerol can act as an acceptor for the phosphate of ATP. We have compared this behavior with that of the only mammalian isoform of diacylglycerol kinase that exhibits acyl chain specificity, i.e. DGK epsilon. The purpose of the study was to determine if differences in the competition between ATPase activity and lipid phosphorylation could contribute to the observed acyl chain specificity with different diacylglycerols.

In the absence of N-cadherin, beta-catenin levels were reduced, b

In the absence of N-cadherin, beta-catenin levels were reduced, but numbers of excitatory synapses were selleck screening library unchanged, and there was no impact on number or shape of dendrites or spines. However, the composition of synaptic molecules was altered. Levels of GluA1 and its scaffolding protein PSD95 were diminished and the density of immunolabeled puncta was decreased, without effects on other glutamate receptors and their scaffolding proteins. Additionally, loss of N-cadherin at excitatory synapses triggered increases in the density of markers for inhibitory synapses and decreased severity of hippocampal seizures. Finally,

adult mutant mice were profoundly impaired in hippocampal-dependent memory for spatial episodes. These results demonstrate a novel function for the N-cadherin/beta-catenin complex in regulating ionotropic receptor composition of excitatory synapses, an appropriate balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic

proteins and the maintenance of neural circuitry necessary to generate flexible yet persistent cognitive and synaptic function. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Purpose To report a case series of three patients with bilateral uveal effusion syndrome (UES), treated conservatively with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and topical prostaglandin analogues (PAs). Methods Three patients with bilateral UES were treated with the same initial therapy. Topical PA latanoprost 0.005% and acetazolamide 250 mg were administered in order to reduce intraocular pressure, improve uveoscleral SRT1720 mouse outflow, and facilitate resolution of uveal effusion. Results The chorioretinal detachment resolved within 3 months in two reported patients

while the third one underwent surgery on his left eye. After clinical improvement, further oral therapy with acetazolamide was stopped, while topical prostaglandins were continued for at least the next 3 months. All patients were free from recurrence during the follow-up period. Conclusion Although the usually recommended UES therapy is partial or full-thickness sclerectomy, our case series showed apparent resolution of chorioretinal detachment in two patients on medical therapy alone. Conservative therapy may be the first step before the standard recommended surgical approach, but further studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of reported therapy.”
“The safety and tolerability of vandetanib (ZACTIMA (TM); ZD6474) plus FOLFIRI was investigated in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC).\n\nPatients eligible for first- or second-line chemotherapy received once-daily oral doses of vandetanib (100 or 300 mg) plus 14-day treatment cycles of FOLFIRI.\n\nA total of 21 patients received vandetanib 100 mg (n = 11) or 300 mg (n = 10) + FOLFIRI. Combination therapy was well tolerated at both vandetanib dose levels. There were no DLTs in the vandetanib 100 mg cohort and one DLT of hypertension (CTCAE grade 3) in the 300 mg cohort.

To evaluate the potential functional change of a common 808G >

To evaluate the potential functional change of a common 808G > T variant Ala270Ser) identified in this population, 15 healthy participants with different 808G > T mutation status were recruited in a pharmacokinetic study of metformin with or without cimetidine.\n\nResults BIX 01294 clinical trial A total of 14 genetic variants were

identified and 13 had frequency more than 1%. The renal tubular clearance (CL) of metformin averaged 8.78 +/- 1.75, 768 +/- 0.672, and 6.32 +/- 0.954 ml/min/kg for participants with GG (n=6), GT (n=5), and TT (n=4) genotypes, respectively (P=0.037, one-way analysis of variance). In the presence of cimetidine, metformin CLt was decreased in all participants, but the decrease was significantly lower in TT than GG group (118.7 vs. 48.2%, P=0.029). Conclusion Our study results demonstrated for the first time the existence of genetic polymorphisms of OCT2 in the Chinese population, and further showed that the 808G > T polymorphism is associated with a reduced metformin renal or tubular clearance. Moreover, the inhibition of metformin renal tubular secretion by

cimetidine also appeared to be dependent on this mutation. Pharmacogenetics selleck products and Genomics 18:637-645 (c) 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“The I5L gene is one of similar to 90 genes that are conserved throughout the chordopoxvirus family, and hence are presumed to play vital roles in the poxvirus life cycle. Previous work had indicated that the VP13 protein, a component of the virion membrane, was encoded by the I5L gene, but no additional studies had been reported. Using a recombinant virus that encodes an I5 protein fused to a V5 epitope tag at the endogenous locus (vI5V5), we show here that the I5 protein is expressed as a post-replicative gene and that the similar to 9 kDa

protein does not appear to be phosphorylated in vivo. I5 does not appear to traffic to any cellular organelle, but ultrastructural and biochemical analyses indicate that I5 is associated with the membranous components of assembling and mature virions. Intact virions can be labeled with 5-Fluoracil cost anti-V5 antibody as assessed by immunoelectron microscopy, indicating that the C’ terminus of the protein is exposed on the virion surface. Using a recombinant virus which encodes only a TET-regulated copy of the I5V5 gene (v Delta indI5V5), or one in which the I5 locus has been deleted (v Delta I5), we also show that I5 is dispensable for replication in tissue culture. Neither plaque size nor the viral yield produced in BSC40 cells or primary human fibroblasts are affected by the absence of I5 expression.”
“Background: Previous studies have shown a general reduction in annual transmission potential (ATP) of Anopheles species after mass drug administration (MDA) in lymphatic filariasis endemic communities.

Certain d-amino acids can accumulate to millimolar levels in cell

Certain d-amino acids can accumulate to millimolar levels in cell culture, and their synthesis is proposed to foretell movement from exponential growth phase into stationary phase. While enzymes responsible for synthesis of d-amino acids necessary

for peptidoglycan (d-alanine and d-glutamate) have been characterized from a number of different bacteria, the d-amino acid synthesis enzymes characterized to date cannot account for the diversity of d-amino acids identified in bacteria or bacteria-rich environments. Free d-amino acids are synthesized by racemization or epimerization at the alpha-carbon of the corresponding l-amino acid by amino acid racemase or amino acid epimerase enzymes. Additionally, PP2 nmr d-amino acids can be synthesized by stereospecific amination of alpha-ketoacids. Below, we review the roles of d-amino GSK3326595 in vitro acids in bacterial physiology and biotechnology, and we describe the known mechanisms by which they are synthesized by bacteria.”
“A real-time PCR protocol for detecting Mycobacterium bovis in feces was evaluated in bovine tuberculosis infected African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Fecal samples spiked with 1.42X10(3) cells of M. bovis culture/g and Bacille Calmette-Guerin standards with 1.58×10(1) genome copies/well were positive by real-time PCR but all field samples were negative.”
“Objectives: To compare next-generation sequencing (NGS) plafforms with mutation-specific

analysis platforms in a clinical setting, in terms of sensitivity, mutation specificity, costs, capacity, and ease of use. Methods: We analyzed 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded check details lung cancer samples of different size and tumor percentage for known KRAS and EGFR hotspot mutations with two dedicated genotyping platforms (cobas [Roche Diagnostics, Almere, The Netherlands] and Rotor-Gene [QIAGEN, Venlo, The Netherlands]) and two NGS platforms (454 Genome Sequencer [GS] junior [Roche Diagnostics] and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine [Life Technologies, Bleiswijk, The Netherlands]). Results: All platforms, except the 454 GS junior, detected the mutations originally detected by Sanger sequencing and high-resolution melting prescreening and detected

an additional KRAS mutation. The dedicated genotyping platforms outperformed the NGS platforms in speed and ease of use. The large sequencing capacity of the NGS plafforms enabled them to deliver all mutation information for all samples at once. Conclusions: Sensitivity for detecting mutations was highly comparable among all platforms. The choice for either a dedicated genotyping platform or an NGS plafform is basically a trade-off between speed and genetic information.”
“The seaweed Sargassum horneri is an important brown alga in the marine environment, and it is an important raw material in the alginate industry. Unfortunately, the fixed resource that was originally reported is now reduced or disappeared, and increased floating populations have been reported in recent years.

2 years)

The rs25531 polymorphism was genotyped in both

2 years).

The rs25531 polymorphism was genotyped in both groups. Because of its close proximity to rs25531, the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism was also genotyped. Genotype and allele frequencies for rs25531 and for the composite 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 marker were analyzed by chi(2) test.\n\nRESULTS: There was no significant association between any genotype and clinical category and no significant allele distribution profiles for rs25531 or 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 in either the premenstrual dysphoric disorder or the control groups.\n\nCONCLUSION: These findings do not support a major role for rs25531, either in isolation or combined with 5-HTTLPR, in contributing to susceptibility to premenstrual dysphoria.”
“OBJECTIVES Danusertib This study sought to evaluate the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition, morphology, and outcomes in patients with acute coronary selleck kinase inhibitor syndromes (ACS).\n\nBACKGROUND CKD patients presenting with ACS are at increased risk for adverse events. Whether or not this increased risk reflects differences in coronary plaque composition remains unknown.\n\nMETHODS In the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study, patients presenting with ACS in whom percutaneous coronary intervention was successful underwent 3-vessel grayscale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. Lesions

were prospectively characterized, and patients were followed for a median of 3.4 years. We conducted a patient-level and lesion-level analysis of study participants by comparing intravascular ultrasound parameters of untreated nonculprit lesions in patients with and without CKD.\n\nRESULTS Patients with CKD (n = 73, 11.3%) were older, more Blebbistatin often female and diabetic compared to those without CKD (n = 573). Nonculprit lesions in patients with (n = 280) versus without (n = 2,390)

CKD were more likely to have plaque burden >= 70% (11.8% vs. 8.5%, p = 0.05) and minimal luminal area >= 4.0 mm(2) (25.9% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.005). The percentage of plaque comprised of necrotic core (15.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.0001) and dense calcium (8.2% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.0001) was higher while fibrous tissue (57.7% vs. 59.8%, p < 0.0001) was lower in CKD versus non-CKD lesions. The 3-year composite rate of cardiac death, cardiac arrest, or myocardial infarction (15.1% vs. 3.3%, p < 0.0001) was significantly higher in patients with than in those without CKD, although there were no differences in the rates of events adjudicated to nonculprit lesions.\n\nCONCLUSIONS Following percutaneous coronary intervention of all culprit lesions in ACS, patients with versus without CKD have more extensive and severe atherosclerosis remaining in their coronary tree with plaque composed of greater necrotic core and less fibrous tissue.

“Although chemotherapy has advanced into the era of target

“Although chemotherapy has advanced into the era of targeted R788 research buy drugs, the antitumor efficacies of current

therapies are limited, most likely because of the high degree of cancer clonal heterogeneity, intratumor genetic heterogeneity and cell signal complexity. As shutdown of a single target does not necessarily eradicate the cancer, the use of combinations of molecular-targeted agents (MATs) has been proposed, and some pioneering research has been conducted to examine the efficacy of this strategy. In this article, the clinical and preclinical studies that are underway in an attempt to improve the anticancer efficacy of chemotherapies through combination strategies are summarized. Studies of combining cytotoxic agents with MATs, coinhibiting two or

more targets in a single pathway or coinhibiting parallel or compensatory pathways as well as specific combinations will be introduced, and the antitumor potentials of each combination strategy will be evaluated.”
“Current concepts of basal ganglia function have evolved from the essentially motoric, to include a range of extramotoric functions that involve not only dopaminergic but also cholinergic, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic mechanisms. We consider these mechanisms and their efferent systems, including spiralling, feed-forward striato-nigro-striatal circuitry, involving the dorsal and ventral striatum and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell. These processes are illustrated using three behavioural models: turning-pivoting, orofacial movements in rats and orofacial movements in genetically modified mice. Turning-pivoting buy GS-9973 indicates that dopamine-dependent behaviour elicited from the NAc shell is funnelled through the NAc-nigro-striato-nigro-pedunculopontine pathway, whereas acetylcholine-dependent behaviour elicited from the NAc shell is funnelled through the NAc-ventral pallidum-mediodorsal thalamus pathway. Cooperative/synergistic interactions between striatal D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors regulate individual topographies of orofacial movements that are funnelled through striatal projection pathways and involve interactions with GABAergic and

glutamatergic receptor subtypes. This application of concerted behavioural, neurochemical and neurophysiological techniques implicates a network that Screening Library order is yet broader and interacts with other neurotransmitters and neuropeptides within subcortical, cortical and brainstem regions to ‘sculpt’ aspects of behaviour into its topographical collective. Copyright (C) 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Termites are social cockroaches and this sociality is founded on a high plasticity during development. Three molting types (progressive, stationary and regressive molts) are fundamental to achieve plasticity during alate/sexual development, and they make termites a major challenge to any model on endocrine regulation in insect development.

The analysis of the mean lengths of the development of larvae at

The analysis of the mean lengths of the development of larvae at different temperatures and relative humidity with the 16L:8D showed that the developmental time of larvae decreases with increasing

relative humidity. This factor was significant, while the effect of the increase of temperature and the interaction between the temperature and relative humidity was not significant. At 0L:24D a decrease of the developmental time of larvae was observed when temperature was increased, both at 50 and at 70% RH. The developmental time of pupae was between 4 and 15 days, the shortest mean developmental time with a highest number of alive individuals was observed at 29 +/- PD98059 1 degrees C, and 0L:24D, and both levels of relative humidity. The pupal developmental time showed small differences at the two relative

humidities, with the exception of 26 +/- 1 degrees C and 16L:8D at 50 +/- 5 % RH where the mean development time was 10.7 days (+/-1.3 SD), and at 70 +/- 5 % RH with mean duration of 9.1 days (+/-1.6 SD). The photoperiod influenced the length of development in I. inquinato as the shortest mean development periods were observed in the tests carried out with 0L:24D.”
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness, ultimately leading to respiratory failure. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling and intracellular Ca2+ handling during disease progression in the G93A*SOD1 ALS transgenic (ALS Tg) mouse model. To assess E-C coupling, single muscle

BI 6727 datasheet fibers were electrically stimulated (10-150 Hz), and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration was assessed using fura-2. There were no differences in peak fura-2 ratio at any stimulation frequency at 70 days (early presymptomatic). However, at 90 days (late presymptomatic) and 120-140 days (symptomatic), fura-2 ratio was increased at 10 Hz in ALS Tg compared with wild-type (WT) fibers (0.670 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.585 +/- 0.02 for 120-140 days; P smaller than 0.05). There was also a significant increase in resting fura-2 ratio at 90 days (0.351 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.390 +/- 0.009 in WT vs. ALS Tg; P smaller than 0.05) and 120-140 selleck kinase inhibitor days (0.374 +/- 0.001 vs. 0.415 +/- 0.003 in WT vs. ALS Tg; P smaller than 0.05). These increases in intracellular Ca2+ in ALS Tg muscle were associated with reductions in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase proteins SERCA1 (to 54% and 19% of WT) and SERCA2 (to 56% and 11% of WT) and parvalbumin (to 80 and 62% of WT) in gastrocnemius muscle at 90 and 120-140 days, respectively. There was no change in dihydropyridine receptor/L-type Ca2+ channel at any age. Overall, these data demonstrate minimal changes in electrically evoked Ca2+ transients but elevations in intracellular Ca2+ attributable to decreased Ca2+-clearance proteins.

This mode of administration also seems to attenuate troponin rele

This mode of administration also seems to attenuate troponin release and spares treatment resources such as duration of postoperative ventilation and ICU stay. The reported experience in patients with noncardiac surgery is meager but previous results obtained from nonsurgical patients should be largely applicable. The use BKM120 nmr of levosimendan in treating septic myocardial depression or sepsis syndrome is a promising option but remains investigational for today.\n\nSummary\n\nNew practice advisories and proposals for indications to treat and prevent low-output syndrome in patients at risk are warranted for patients undergoing cardiac

surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Levosimendan should also be considered as an adjunct drug for the treatment of cardiogenic shock. Further experience and controlled studies are needed to support the use of levosimendan for other perturbations in critical care and perioperative medicine.”
“Aims: The aim of this study was to explore the roles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) sponsors and to describe the characteristics of a sample of sponsors. Methods: Twenty-eight AA sponsors, recruited using a purposive sampling method, were administered an unstructured qualitative interview and standardized questionnaires. The measurements

included: a content analysis of sponsors’ responses; Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire-Community version (SADQ-C) and Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale (AAAS). Results: Sample characteristics were as follows: the median length of this website AA attendance was 9.5 years (range 5-28); the median length of sobriety was 11 years (range 4.5-28); the median number of sponsees per sponsor was 1 but NU7441 ic50 there was a wide range (0-17, interquartile range 3.75); and the sponsors were highly

affiliated to AA (median AAAS score 8.75, range 5.5-8.75, maximum possible score 9). Past alcohol dependence scores were surprisingly low: 5 (18%) sponsors had mild, 14 (50%) moderate and 9 (32%) severe dependence according to the SADQ-C (median 26.5, range 11-56). Sponsorship roles were as follows: 16 roles were identified through the initial content analysis. These were distilled into three super-ordinate roles through a thematic analysis: (1) encouraging sponsees to work the programme of AA (doing the 12 steps and engaging in AA activity); (2) support (regular contact, emotional support and practical support); and (3) carrying the message of AA (sharing sponsor’s personal experience of recovery with sponsees). Conclusions: The roles identified broadly corresponded with the AA literature delineating the duties of a sponsor. This non-random sample of sponsors was highly engaged in AA activity but only had a past history of moderate alcohol dependence.