The q-range measured was 0 01–0 30 Å− 1 Measurements were conduc

The q-range measured was 0.01–0.30 Å− 1. Measurements were conducted with the samples mounted on an x–y motorised stage and a step size of 100 μm with an exposure time of 5 s at each point was used to scan the cross-section of the bone [35]. The detector used was a PILATUS 1 M (Dectris Ltd.). The mineral plate thickness, predominant orientation and degree of orientation of the mineral crystals were calculated for each scattering image as described earlier [35], [36] and [37]. Only scattering images where the signal level indicated the presence of cortical bone were analysed. Unless states otherwise, all data is given as mean ± standard deviation (S.D.). For statistical

analysis of imaging, biomechanical and histological data, one way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test were conducted using Prism 5.0 (Graphpad, USA) with alpha being 0.05. MeCP2 protein is hypoxia-inducible factor cancer particularly abundant in post-mitotic cells of the brain, but is also widely expressed throughout the body [7], [9] and [38]. In order to confirm

that bone cells express MeCP2 Atezolizumab we used a reporter mouse line in which MeCP2 expresses a C-terminal GFP tag [31]. We observed that all bone cells express nuclear GFP fluorescence in both wild type male (Fig. 2A) and female mice (data not shown). In contrast, GFP fluorescence is absent in hemizygous Mecp2stop/y mice ( Fig. 2B), in which Mecp2 is silenced by a stop cassette, and is observed in ~ 50% of nuclei in heterozygous Mecp2+/stop mice in which one Mecp2 allele is silenced to mimic the mosaic expression pattern seen in human female Rett syndrome [26] and [30]

( Fig. 2C). In order to determine any gross skeletal abnormalities caused Methane monooxygenase by MeCP2 deficiency, the tibia and femur of male Mecp2stop/y mice together with wild-type littermates were examined for gross morphometric and weight measures ( Table 1). No difference in whole body weights was observed between genotypes in male mice (Wt = 31.88 ± 3.85 g; Mecp2stop/y = 28.14 ± 4.07 g; Mecp2stop/y, CreER = 27.74 ± 2.68 g; n = 5 per genotype; p < 0.05, ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test) or in the female comparison genotypes (Wt = 32.72 ± 5.59 g; Mecp2+/stop = 41.70 ± 7.15 g; Mecp2+/stop, CreER = 39.47 ± 9.77 g; n = 5 per genotype; p < 0.05, ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test). Mecp2stop/y mouse femurs showed a significantly reduced weight in comparison with wild-type (Wt) littermate controls and Mecp2stop/y, CreER (Wt = 51.90 ± 3.77 mg; Mecp2stop/y = 44.80 ± 3.41 mg; Mecp2stop/y, CreER = 51.80 ± 5.87 mg; n = 5 per genotype; p < 0.05, ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test). A similar trend was observed in Mecp2stop/y mouse tibias, weight measures (Wt = 55.50 ± 2.11 mg; Mecp2stop/y = 49.20 ± 1.21 mg; Mecp2stop/y, CreER = 52.12 ± 2.96 mg; n = 5 per genotype; p < 0.05, ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test). There was an accompanying reduction in tibial length (p < 0.01), but no significant difference in femoral length between groups (p > 0.05) ( Table 1).

5 × TBE buffer (pH 8 0), and silver stained to visualize the PCR

5 × TBE buffer (pH 8.0), and silver stained to visualize the PCR products. The polymorphic BMr markers were evaluated in the DOR364 × G19833 population of F9:11 recombinant Bleomycin research buy inbred lines (RIL) as described in Blair et al. [16]. DOR364 is a small red-seeded variety of the Mesoamerican genepool, grown

in several countries of Central America. G19833 is a landrace originally collected in Peru of the Andean genepool with large, yellow and red-mottled seed and has been selected for genomic sequencing. An anchor genetic map for this population was built with single-copy RFLP and SSR markers (of the series BM, BMa and BMd) using the software Mapmaker 3.0 for Windows [31]. Genotyping results of the present work were recorded in a Microsoft Excel worksheet with female alleles as “A” and

male alleles as “B”. Heterozygotes or missing data was not considered. The BMr markers were added to the genetic map using the software program MapDisto v. 1.7 ( with “find groups” at a minimum of LOD > 3.0. The “order sequence” and “compare all orders” commands were then used to identify the best marker order for each linkage group. The location of anchor markers was cross-checked with the map of Blair et al. [16]. Linkage groups were drawn according to the cytogenetic orientation of their corresponding chromosomes based on Fonsêca et al. [32]. R-genes or QTL were added Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor to the map based on the estimated positions in Miklas et al. [9]. Genetic distances between markers in centiMorgans (cM) were obtained using the Kosambi function, which assumes crossover interference. The first step in the detection of RGH-SSRs in common bean was probe design, which was based on singleton and assembled RGH gene and pseudogene sequences (Table 1). A total of 86 probes were amplified for screening of the G19833 BAC library. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of Garzón et al. [26], 38 of these represented TIR clades and 48 non-TIR clades. Some sequences

with premature Thiamine-diphosphate kinase stop codon or with no evident open reading frame (ORF) were considered pseudogenes (22 out of 86) but were also used for probe design. If a probe was designed from two or more sequences, it was classified as from assembled sequences. Singleton probes were those designed from only one sequence sharing no more than 90% identity with any other sequence according to Garzón et al. [26]. Almost all the TIR probes were designed from assembled RGH gene sequences. Most of the non-TIR probes were designed from single RGH. Pseudogenes, even those with a low identity value with other sequences, were used for probe design because we were interested in identifying the maximum number of putative common bean RGHs. The next step was confirming probe amplification and deciding which probes to hybridize to the G19833 BAC library. This was done by sequencing the PCR products of the probe amplification described above.

The tissue was then sliced 10–20 times with a 0 2 mm minuten pin,

The tissue was then sliced 10–20 times with a 0.2 mm minuten pin, gathered together, and covered with a 0.5 μL droplet of 1.0 M 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid [DHB; Sigma–Aldrich (sublimed prior to use)] prepared in 1:1 acetonitrile:water containing 2% phosphoric acid. For most extractions in acidified methanol, the extraction solvent was 30% deionized water, 65% methanol (CH3OH; HPLC-grade; Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library Fisherbrand), and 5% glacial acetic acid (CH3CO2H; reagent grade; Sigma–Aldrich, ≥99%), as a %[v/v] mixture. A single eyestalk ganglion was rinsed sequentially in two 12 μL droplets of 0.75 M d-fructose

solution, placed in a 0.6 mL low retention centrifuge tube (Fisherbrand) with 50 μL of extraction solvent (smaller volumes were used when smaller tissues were analyzed), and then homogenized by one of the following methods. In early work, the tissue see more was repeatedly sliced with spring scissors; in most of the work reported in this study, tissues were ground by inserting a longer, smaller diameter polypropylene tube (0.25 mL; Fisherbrand) into the

0.60 mL tube and repeatedly twisting the tube for homogenization. In some experiments, deuterated methanol (CD3OD; 99.8% deuterated; Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Andover, MA, USA) was substituted for the standard CH3OH in the extraction buffer (the same solvent composition was used). After tissue homogenization, the sample was sonicated for 2–5 min and centrifuged at 15k rpm for 5–15 min. The supernatant was removed from the sample and placed in another 0.6 mL tube. In early experiments, samples were delipidated prior to analysis. For delipidation, 25 μL of nanopure water was added to the supernatant along with 25 μL chloroform (NMR-grade 13CDCl3; Cambridge Isotope Laboratories) in order to remove lipids from the aqueous solution. The two layers were sonicated for 2 min and centrifuged for 10 min. The bottom organic layer was removed. Chloroform was added and the extraction was repeated two more times, but with a 5-min centrifugation. The aqueous layer

was either stored at −20 °C or concentrated to dryness in a SpeedVac vacuum concentrator (UVS400 Universal Vacuum System, Thermo Electron Corporation) Megestrol Acetate at 36 °C. Once dried, the extract was reconstituted to a total volume of 50 μL in 1:1 ACN:H2O in preparation for analysis by MALDI-FTMS or HPLC Chip–nanoESI Q-TOF MS. For some samples analyzed by MALDI-FTMS, the extracts, reconstituted in 0.1% TFA water, were desalted using C18 ZipTip pipette tips (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA). For MALDI-FTMS analysis of extracts, 0.5 μL of the extract was mixed with 0.5 μL of DHB matrix on one face of the MALDI probe and the extract–matrix mixture was allowed to co-crystallize. For extractions in acidified acetone (85% acetone [Sigma–Aldrich, ≥99%], 13% deionized water, and 2% HCl [reagent grade; Fisherbrand], as a %[v/v] mixture, a single eyestalk ganglion was rinsed sequentially in two 12 μL droplets of 0.75 M d-fructose solution and placed in a 0.

4 for stable stratification and equal to 1 for unstable stratific

4 for stable stratification and equal to 1 for unstable stratification. The boundary conditions for k and ε read: equation(14a) k=u∗3Cμ3/4+maxB0kd1Cμ3/43/4, equation(14b) ε=u∗3kd1, equation(14c) u∗2=τsρo, equation(14d) B=gρo∂ρ∂TFnρocp+∂ρ∂SFsalt, where d1 is the distance from the boundary to the centre of the nearboundary grid cell, κ von Karman’s constant, u* the friction velocity, τs the wind surface stress and B the buoyancy flux due to net Alectinib cost heat (Fn) and salt (Fsalt) fluxes. In the absence of momentum and buoyancy fluxes, minimum values of k and ε are applied. The constants are discussed

in greater detail in Omstedt & Axell (2003). The initial temperature and salinity conditions for the EMB were taken from January 1958. The temperature and Z VAD FMK salinity were 16.6 ° C and 38.5 PSU respectively, from the surface to a depth of 150 m. Then temperature and salinity changed linearly to 14.1 ° C and 38.7 PSU respectively, at a depth of 600 m. From a depth of 600 m to the bottom, temperature and salinity were set to 14.1 ° C and 38.7 PSU respectively.

The initial conditions for the turbulent model assumed only constant and small values for the turbulent kinetic energy DCLK1 and its dissipation rate. The sensible heat flux Fh is given by equation(15) Fh−CHρacpaWa(Ts−Ta),Fh−CHρacpaWaTs−Ta, where CH is the heat

transfer coefficient and cpa the heat capacity of air. The latent heat flux Fe is calculated as equation(16) Fe=CEρaLeWa(qs−qa),Fe=CEρaLeWaqs−qa, where qs is the specific humidity of air at the sea surface, assumed to be equal to the saturation value at temperature Ts, calculated as equation(17) qs=0.622RsPaexpcq1TsTs+273.15−cq2, where Rs = 611, cq1 = 17.27, cq2 = 35.86, and Pa is the air pressure at the reference level. The specific humidity of air at the reference level qa is accordingly calculated as equation(18) qa=0.622RsRhPaexpcq1TaTa+273.15−cq2, where Rh is the relative humidity (0 ≤ Rh ≤ 1). The heat flux due to net long-wave radiation Fl is given by the difference between the upward and downward propagation of long-wave radiation ( Bodin 1979), according to: equation19) Fl=εsσsTs+273.144−σsTa+273.154a1+a2ea1/21+a3N2, where εs is the emissivity of the sea surface, σs the Stefan-Boltzmann coefficient, and a1, a2 and a3 = 0.68, 0.0036 and 0.18 are constants. Furthermore, Nc is the cloud coverage and ea is the water vapour pressure in the atmosphere, related to qa as follows: equation(20) ea=Pa0.622qa.

More than 100 indents were made in the selected region of size va

More than 100 indents were made in the selected region of size varying from 300 to 500 μm. selleckchem A maximum load of 5000 μN was used. Anatomical areas were selected based on qBEI images, and results were normalized for calcium content. The elastic modulus was calculated using the method of Oliver and Pharr [29], by fitting the unloading curve with a second order

polynomial, differentiating and therefore evaluating the elastic recovery at maximum load to determine the contact depth. The parameters measured during the experiment were peak load (Pmax), peak displacement hmax, contact area Ac, and stiffness S. The stiffness was calculated from the slope of the initial unloading curve; the region between 20 and 95% of the maximum load was used to determine the slope of the unloading curve. The hardness H and reduced modulus Er are calculated from unloading contact stiffness, S, and the indenter contact area Ac: H=Pmax/AcH=Pmax/Ac Er=π1/2S/2Ac1/2Er=π1/2S/2Ac1/2 Thin sections (~ 4 μm) were cut from the L5 vertebrae, and spectral images acquired in the area of trabecular bone using a Bruker Equinox 55 (Bruker Optics) spectrometer interfaced to a Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) focal plane array detector (64 × 64 array) imaged onto the focal plane of an IR microscope (Bruker Hyperion 3000; Bruker Optics). Each area imaged was 400 × 400 μm, corresponding to an optimal spatial resolution of ~ 6.3 × 6.3 μm.

Alectinib chemical structure Spectral resolution was 4 cm− 1. Background spectral images were collected under identical conditions from the same BaF2 windows at the beginning and end of each experiment to ensure instrument stability. Both instruments were continuously powered to minimize warm-up instabilities and purged with dry-air (Bruker Optics) to minimize the water vapor and CO2 interference. Following this, individual spectra were extracted

from trabecular surfaces that were exhibiting either primary mineralization packets, or resorption pits, based on the previously acquired qBEI images (six different trabecular surfaces per animal were analyzed). BCKDHB The individual spectra were processed as published elsewhere to derive the following spectroscopic parameters: (i) Mineral/matrix ratio (integrated areas under the phosphate (mineral) 900–1200 cm− 1 and amide I 1592–1728 cm− 1 (matrix; mainly collagen) absorbance peaks, respectively; corresponds to ash weight measurements) [30], (ii) mineral maturity/crystallinity (through curve-fitting of the phosphate (mineral) 900–1200 cm− 1 peak and the calculation of the 1030 to 1020 cm− 1 sub-band peak area) [31] and [32], and (iii) the ratio of PYD/divalent collagen cross-links (through curve-fitting of the Amide I and II peaks and the calculation of the 1660 to 1690 cm− 1 sub-band peak area) [33]. For each animal, the values of each parameter at a particular anatomical site (forming or resorbing) were averaged and the resultant value was treated as a single statistical unit.

In other words, the statistics of tides and storm surges (storm t

In other words, the statistics of tides and storm surges (storm tides) relative to mean sea level are assumed to be unchanged. It is also assumed that there is no change in wave climate (and therefore in wave setup and runup). The allowance derived from this method depends also on the distribution function of the uncertainty in the rise in mean sea level at some future time. However, once this distribution and the Gumbel scale parameter has been chosen, the remaining derivation of the allowance is entirely objective. If the future sea-level rise were known exactly (i.e. the uncertainty was zero), then the allowance would be equal to the central value of the estimated rise. However, because of the exponential

nature of the Gumbel distribution (which means that overestimates LY294002 molecular weight of sea-level rise more than Ipilimumab datasheet compensate for underestimates of the same magnitude), uncertainties in the projected rise increase the allowance above the central value. Hunter (2012) combined the Gumbel scale parameters derived from 198 tide-gauge

records in the GESLA (Global Extremes Sea-Level Analysis) database (see Menéndez and Woodworth, 2010) with projections of global-average sea-level rise, in order to derive estimates of the allowance around much of the world’s coastlines. The spatial variation of this allowance therefore depended only on variations of the Gumbel scale parameter. We here derive improved estimates of the allowance using the same GESLA tide-gauge records, but spatially varying projections of sea level from the IPCC AR4 ( Meehl et al., 2007) with enhancements to account for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and ongoing Meloxicam changes in the Earth’s loading and gravitational field ( Church et al., 2011). We use projections for the A1FI emission scenario (which the world is broadly following at present; Le

Quéré et al., 2009). The results presented here relate to an approximation of relative sea level (i.e. sea level relative to the land). They include the effects of vertical land motion due to changes in the Earth’s loading and gravitational field caused by past and ongoing changes in land ice. They do not include effects due to local land subsidence produced, for example, by deltaic processes or groundwater withdrawal; separate allowances should be applied to account for these latter effects. A fundamental problem with existing sea-level rise projections is a lack of information on the upper bound for sea-level rise during the 21st century, in part because of our poor knowledge of the contribution from ice sheets (IPCC, 2007). This effectively means that the likelihood of an extreme high sea-level rise (the upper tail of the distribution function of the sea-level rise uncertainty) is poorly known. The results described here are based on relatively thin-tailed distributions (normal and raised cosine) and may therefore not be appropriate if the distribution is fat-tailed (Section 6).

All the determinations were performed in duplicate and the result

All the determinations were performed in duplicate and the results were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. NIR spectroscopy was obtained by Matrix-I FT-NIR spectrometer (Bruker Optics, Ettlingen, German) equipped with an integrating sphere in the sampling area. OPUS spectroscopy software (v.6.5 Bruker Optics, Ettlingen, Germany) was used for instrumental control and spectral acquisition. Sample

was poured into 50 mm rotating cup on holder and scanned over the spectra range 4000–12,500 cm− 1 (800–2500 nm) at 1 nm interval. The spectrum of each sample was find more the average of 64 scans with the resolution ratio of 16 cm− 1. All acquisitions of the sample spectrum were performed in triplicate. Prior to modeling, the original data were smoothed using the Savitzky–Golay (9 points) algorithm to avoid noise enhancement [20]. To optimize the models, the available data preprocessing methods were performed on the data using mathematical transformation method such as vector normalization, multiplicative scattering correction, the first derivative + vector normalization and the first derivative + multiplicative scattering correction. Limiting wavenumber region was used to decrease the spectral noise [13]. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was used to obtain the fundamental relation between the spectral data and corresponding chemical values. The reliability LGK-974 solubility dmso of prediction model

was tested by leave-one-sample-out cross validation and external validation. All models were originally based on a calibration set (203 samples) and a validation set (41 samples). Therefore, the choice of the calibration and validation sets ensured a large representative range and a good uniformity of gradient distribution. Various statistics, such as the coefficient

of correlation (r2), the coefficient of determination (R2), the root mean square error (RMSE) and residual predictive deviation (RPD), were computed by OPUS 6.5 to judge the quality of models. The coefficient PtdIns(3,4)P2 of determination (R2) indicates the percentage of variance present in the chemical values, which was reproduced in the prediction. The root mean square error in cross-validation (RMSECV) gives an average of the uncertainty that can be expected for the predicted values. The root mean square error of prediction in test set validation (RMSEP) was also computed. The residual prediction deviation (RPD), defined as the ratio between the standard deviation of the values and the standard error of performance, indicated the predictive capacity. The prediction accuracy of models was regarded as excellent or good when RPD was above 2.5. The models could be applied for a rough prediction when RPD ranged from 2.0 to 2.5. Reliable PLS model should have high value of r2, R2 and RPD and low value of RMSECV [20] and [21]. For preventing PLS model from over-fitting, the max rank value was determinate at ten. Two-step clustering analysis was performed by SPSS (Version 13.

Depending on the change in the endotoxicity and composition (Endo

Depending on the change in the endotoxicity and composition (Endolo vs Endohi), the intestinal microbiota might promote intestinal homeostasis or trigger inflammation. Up to this point, we demonstrated that the differences in the LPS of E coli were essential for the ability of E coli to induce or prevent colitis, as shown by feeding experiments with E coliWT inducing inflammation and E coliMUT preventing disease. To demonstrate conclusively that LPS of E coliWT and E coliMUT mediated the pro- or anti-inflammatory effect, we investigated whether the feeding of purified WT LPS from E coliWT (LPSWT) or mutant LPS (LPSMUT) from

E coliMUT could confirm Selleckchem MAPK Inhibitor Library these results ( Supplementary Figure 2). Therefore, we challenged Endolo and EndohiRag1−/− mice with purified LPSWT or LPSMUT. Treatment of EndoloRag1−/− mice with LPSWT, but not with LPSMUT, resulted in induction of colonic inflammation ( Figure 4A), as indicated by an increased histology score ( Figure 4B). In addition,

LPSWT-fed EndohiRag1−/− mice showed increased colonic inflammation as compared with LPSMUT-treated EndohiRag1−/− mice ( Figure 4A and B). The histology of the inflamed mucosa resembled the pathology of Endohi mice ( Figure 2B and C). Dose−response experiments clearly demonstrated that the protection of Endohi mice from inflammation followed a LPSMUT dose response ( Supplementary Figure 6). The relative abundance of phyla in intestinal microbiota of LPSWT- and LPSMUT-treated Endolo or EndohiRag1−/− mice was determined learn more ( Supplementary Figure 7, Supplementary Table 3) by 454 sequencing of the 16S rDNA amplicons. However, it remains unclear whether the changes in the composition of the microbiota due to administration of LPS are a cause or consequence

of the altered host immune response along with the development of colitis, and whether this change is an epiphenomenon or shows a causal effect. Feeding LPSWT to EndoloRag1−/− mice Anidulafungin (LY303366) resulted in significantly more activated lp DC in terms of CD40 and MHC class II expression as compared with LPSMUT-treated EndoloRag1−/− mice ( Figure 4C). Lamina propria DC of LPSMUT-treated EndohiRag1−/− mice showed significantly lower expressions of CD40 than LPSWT-treated EndohiRag1−/− mice and comparable low amounts of MHC class II ( Figure 4C). Feeding LPSWT to EndoloRag1−/− mice resulted in significantly more lp CD4+ T cells as compared with treatment with LPSMUT ( Figure 4D). Total numbers of lp T cells of LPSWT-treated EndoloRag1−/− mice were significantly higher than in LPSMUT-treated EndoloRag1−/− mice ( Figure 4D). In LPSWT-treated EndohiRag1−/− mice, the number of CD4+ T cells was significantly increased. In line with histologic scoring, the absence of colitis in LPSMUT-treated EndohiRag1−/− mice was associated with a significantly decreased frequency of lp T cells ( Figure 4D). This was consistent with the total numbers of lp T cells ( Figure 4D).

Lesions otherwise suited to brachytherapy for management of the p

Lesions otherwise suited to brachytherapy for management of the primary tumor may present with early adenopathy or require sentinel lymph node evaluation or inguinal node dissection. A combined approach of brachytherapy for the primary and surgical evaluation of lymph nodes can be considered. T3 tumors with extension into the penile urethra are

generally not optimal candidates for brachytherapy, although those cases where urethroscopy reveals submucosal deformity without mucosal disruption may still be treated with success, although there is however an increased risk of meatal stenosis that should be explained and understood by the patient. If a locally advanced primary tumor presents with concomitant adenopathy, brachytherapy is unlikely to play a role in management and combinations of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with chemotherapy ± surgery should be considered (18). Tumor grade is not an exclusion factor for brachytherapy (19). In the 74 cases treated by Crook et al. (19) between 1989 and 2007, half had well-differentiated and the other half had moderately or poorly differentiated cancer. Moderately and poorly differentiated tumors responded as well as those that were well differentiated. Local recurrences occurred in six well-differentiated

and two moderate-to-poorly differentiated cases. Penile check details brachytherapy is not a treatment modality that needs to be available in every radiotherapy department. A high volume and varied brachytherapy practice that undertakes interstitial next brachytherapy for other tumor sites may wish to provide this treatment as the basic principles are not dissimilar to those for other interstitial implants. As this is an uncommon tumor, three to six cases per year are sufficient to justify a program. Collaboration

with a penile carcinoma center of excellence is recommended. Penile brachytherapy can be performed under general anesthesia or penile block with systemic sedation. Antibiotic prophylaxis is optional. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy consists of either manually afterloaded 192Ir or pulse-dose-rate (PDR) brachytherapy. The latter uses automated afterloading with a high-intensity 192Ir source to deliver hourly pulses. The two are similar in implant principles and total dose. These implants should be clinically designed according to the anatomic extent of tumor. Knowledge of the Paris system of dosimetry (20) as shown in Fig. 1 is a helpful guide for placement of sources so that the prescription isodoses will encompass the visible and palpable tumor with an appropriate margin. Because the depth of invasion is often underappreciated, margins should be generous and of 10 mm or greater in all directions around the gross tumor volume to delineate the clinical target volume.

Furthermore, the drift itself is small, so measurements will be i

Furthermore, the drift itself is small, so measurements will be influenced by noise and likely difficult to reliably estimate for correction of an individual patient’s data set. Therefore, scanner drift may introduce tissue-dependent systematic deviations in signal enhancement profiles, Quizartinib nmr which, on our system, are particularly noticeable for higher T10 values, such as those found in CSF. It is possible that

CSF flow influences the in vivo measurements, but at present we do not have an explanation for the differential drift observed in phantoms. Converting signal enhancement profiles to contrast agent concentration noticeably altered the relationships between the different tissues for both subject groups. This arises due to the difference in T10 values between tissues and the nonlinear relationship between enhancement and concentration given by Eq. ( 2) and clearly illustrated in Fig. 2 of Schabel and Parker [19]. These results demonstrate that it is dangerous to assume that signal enhancement consistently relates to the amount of contrast agent present in any given tissue, compared to others, when those tissues differ in their intrinsic parameters T10 or r1. This emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate control group, with a view to

minimizing these differences. Similarly, comparing the same tissue in a normal state and differing degrees of disease will not be consistently represented by signal enhancement, if T10 or r1 is altered during the disease process. Thus, a change in T10 or r1 either as part of, or associated with, the disease process can affect the changes observed in signal enhancement. For example, in addition to increased leakage of contrast agent, a common consequence of BBB breakdown is an increase in tissue water content. This elevated water content will lead to local changes in T10 and r1 that alter the observed signal enhancement, in addition to the change resulting from increased contrast agent concentration. Previous work suggests that T10 would be elevated in tissue

with greater water content, not while r1 is related to tissue solids content and reduces in tissue with greater water content [32] and [33]. The enhancement–concentration relationship defined by Eq. ( 2) indicates that these would produce opposing effects, with increased T10 leading to greater signal enhancement and reduced r1 leading to lower signal enhancement in tissue with greater water content. Therefore, when signal enhancement is interpreted, it is not possible to know whether enhancement differences are due to a true difference in contrast agent concentration or to differences in T10 and/or r1. Using a model, such as that proposed in Eq. ( 2), to calculate contrast agent concentration attempts to overcome these limitations, provided that T10 and r1 can be reliably estimated for all tissues.