In this study, we demonstrated that patients with DHF had reduced

In this study, we demonstrated that patients with DHF had reduced SOCS1 expression and elevated miR-150 levels. The miR-155 expression was observed in patients with DF, but not in patients with DHF (Fig. 3(b)). MicroRNAs are an abundant class of highly conserved small non-coding RNAs. They primarily function through suppressing the expression of target genes by binding to their 3′-UTRs of target mRNAs inducing mRNA degradation or suppressed translation. MicroRNAs have been shown to regulate a variety of biological processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation,

apoptosis,36 and 37 and viral infections.38 and 39 The role of miRNAs in the regulation of innate immunity was first reported by Taganov et al.,40 who showed that miR-146 is a negative feedback regulator of TLR signalling. We have previously reported that low innate miR-21 expression, resulting in high TGF-β receptor 2 expression, correlates to antenatal IgE production and development of allergic rhinitis.22 In this study, we found that miR-21 was not associated with dengue infections, but miR-150 was significantly

associated with DHF. miR-150 has been found to be highly expressed in immune cells, and has a permissive function in the maturation, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid cells.41 Many of the miR-150 target transcripts identified so far are pro-apoptotic and differentiation proteins, such as early growth response 2 (EGR2), c-myb, and notch homologue 3 (NOTCH3).42, 43 and 44 Aberrant methylation of the SOCS-1 occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma45 and Gfi-1, a transcription repressor, was also approved binding on SOCS1 gene promoter ZD1839 manufacturer and regulated SOCS1 expression.11 Here, we identified SOCS1 as a possible target of miR-150 in human CD14+ cells and confirmed that miR-150 down-regulates

SOCS1 expression levels in DENV-2-infected cells (Fig. 4(c)). SOCS1 expression levels are reported to increase rapidly following macrophage exposure to inflammatory cytokines and TLR ligands.46 and 47 We showed that SOCS1 mRNA expression increased in CD14+ from cells in response to DENV-2 infection (Fig. 4(b)). SOCS1 protein level is more critical than mRNA expression; however, we were unable to determine the protein level from the DENV-2 cohort due to the limitations of remnant specimens. Further studies are required to determine whether other miRNAs or SOCS family proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of DHF. In summary, we found that patients with DHF had elevated miR-150 expression, which was associated with the suppression of SOCS1 expression. The overexpression of miR-150 suppressed SOCS1 expression, confirming that SOCS1 expression is regulated by miR-150. These data highlight that abnormal immune responses in patients with DHF can be potentially controlled by modulating miRNA expression. We thank Dr. Eng-Yen Huang for his advice on the statistical analyses. For technical assistance, we would like to thank Ms.

This observation, and the potential for rare CVs to explain much

This observation, and the potential for rare CVs to explain much of the remaining additive genetic variation not tagged by SNPs, are together potentially consistent with a model of purifying selection of varying strength: CVs of small effect are under weak to nonexistent purifying selection and drift to high frequencies whereas CVs of larger effect are under increasingly strong purifying selection and kept rare because of it (Figure 1). Finally, although we have argued that much of the remaining variation in traits that has

not been explained by SNPs is likely to be due to rare CVs, there are several alternative explanations for selleck chemicals llc the discrepancy. For example, it is possible that family studies have over-estimated additive genetic variation,

meaning that little additive genetic variation remains to be explained and that rare variants thereby account for little trait variation. Forthcoming methods that use whole-genome sequencing data or shared identical-by-descent haplotypes, both of which can measure or tag rare CVs, should be able to put the rare variant debate largely to rest by directly estimating the importance of rare CVs. We have presented evidence from schizophrenia that is generally consistent LDK378 supplier with underlying CVs on average being under purifying selection and their frequencies being maintained by mutation–selection balance. Findings on human personality [6•] and other behavioral traits appear generally consistent

with this, although datasets are smaller and conclusions more tentative. However, the substantial proportion of variation accounted for by common CVs suggests that the highest frequency/smallest effect CVs may be selectively neutral or nearly neutral. These findings are not contradictory. It is important to recognize that the mutation–selection Acetophenone and the neutral mutation-drift models are not qualitatively distinct; they exist on the same continuum defined by the strength of purifying selection. To date, there is no convincing evidence that balancing selection plays an important role in maintaining the genetic variation in behavioral traits, and outside of the MHC region, genome-wide scans suggest a limited role for balancing selection in general 55, 56 and 57]. Nevertheless, absence of evidence does not necessarily equate to evidence for absence, and future findings could challenge this conclusion. Large whole-genome sequencing datasets will greatly expand our ability to understand the importance of rare variants in complex traits and inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes involved in maintaining traits’ genetic variation. Nevertheless, attempting to understand the evolutionary roots of genetic variation in traits will remain inherently difficult because selection acts on total ‘net fitness’ rather than fitness with respect to any given trait.

The results of the zMsi1 expression analysis (Fig  5 and Fig  6)

The results of the zMsi1 expression analysis (Fig. 5 and Fig. 6) showed that zMsi1 was expressed in the CNS, including the telencephalon, and could be involved in neurogenesis in this region. Zebrafish miR-9 (z-miR-9) is expressed in the telencephalon from 20 to 24 hpf, and inhibits the in vivo expression of Her5 and Her9 mRNAs, mouse Hes basic Selleck RG7422 helixloop-helix transcription factor orthologs, and neural repressors

( Leucht et al., 2008). Interestingly, mMsi1 regulates Hes expression by binding to the 3′UTR of the m-numb mRNA and controlling its translation ( Imai et al., 2001). Alternatively, Msi1 enhanced the expression of the miR-9 directed reporter conjugated to the Nr2e1 3′UTR ( Shibata et al., 2011). Our recent study reported that Msi1 regulates miRNA processing of the let-7 family member mir-98, which acts as a Lin28-enhancer protein during early neural differentiation of ES cells ( Kawahara et al., 2011). These results suggest that zMsi1 also may be involved in neurogenesis and tumorigenesis via miRNA processing and translational control of its direct targets. However, it will be essential to identify bona fide RNA target genes of Msi in a genome-wide screen to predict candidate downstream effectors in development. Then, the involvement of zMsi regulatory

pathways in neural development could be clarified by in vivo manipulations AZD9291 using our zebrafish model. Further analysis of Msi function using this novel zebrafish model will provide new insights into human neurological diseases that are linked to a failure in normal brain development. For this study, the RIKEN WT (RW) zebrafish was used as the control wild-type strain of D. rerio. The HuC:GFP (Tg(elavl3:EGFP)zf8) transgenic D. rerio ( Park et al., 2000) expressing GFP as a neural tissue marker was obtained from the RIKEN bioresource center. The completely transparent Histamine H2 receptor samples shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 7 were prepared by treating fertilized eggs with 0.1 mM phenylthiourea (PTU) to block pigment formation. All experimental procedures

were approved by the Institutional Recombinant DNA Committee, and the Animal Care and Use Committee of Keio University. Total RNA from different stages of zebrafish fertilized eggs and embryos and from adult brain were isolated using the Trizol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. First strand cDNA synthesis was performed with 1 μg total RNA and oligo-d(T)12–18 primers at 42 °C for 50 min according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Superscript III, Invitrogen). Cloning of zMsi1 was performed using Taq DNA polymerase (Invitrogen) PCR with the following primer sets: zMsi1F, 5′-CTTTTCTCGCACCAGACTCGG-3′, and zMsi1R, 5′-TCAGAGAGGGTCCAGCTTCAA-3′; zMsi1F_XbaI, 5′-AATCTAGAATGGAATCGGAAGGCAGCCA-3′, and zMsi1R_XbaI, 5′-AATCTAGAATGGTAGCCATTAGTAAATG-3′, in the pGEM-T-Easy cloning vector (Promega).

Apart from chlorophyll and other products of the

Apart from chlorophyll and other products of the Everolimus local ecosystem, such waters contain many substances entering it from the exterior (from rivers,

the land, the atmosphere, the sea bed and shores), which have complex optical properties, not directly correlated with the chlorophyll a concentration ( Woźniak & Dera 2007, Jonasz & Fournier 2007). These allogenic substances contained in the water modify its colour in a more complex manner, characteristic of a given sea region. The use of remote sensing techniques to monitor such waters requires the application of separate, complex algorithms, purpose-designed for a particular sea region. A serious problem hampering the design and use of these algorithms is also the dynamic variability of atmospheric states, which distort the light spectrum bearing information from the sea to the satellite. Work on the development of suitable algorithms for the Baltic Sea has been going on in Poland for the last 20 years by the teams of researchers represented by the Sirolimus authors of this paper. This work, conducted before the SatBałtyk project was embarked upon and described below in section 2, has provided the scientific foundation

and inspired the implementation of this large-scale Project. The beginnings of the remote sensing of the Baltic Sea by Polish scientists go back to the early 1990s. This pioneering work was done at the Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAN), where marine optics, including optical studies of the Baltic Sea, has been a leading discipline since the early 1960s, and which nowadays is of fundamental importance for the satellite monitoring of this sea’s environment. The first

studies investigated the optical properties of Baltic water constituents, their effect on underwater visibility and the structure of the underwater light 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase field (Dera 1963a,b, 1967, 1971, Dera & Ołszewski 1969, Ołszewski 1973, Woźniak 1973). Subsequently, these optical studies were extended to cover different processes in the sea stimulated by sunlight, including the photosynthesis of organic matter in marine algae (Dera et al. 1975, Woźniak et al. 1980, 1989, Woźniak 1990). In the 1990s this provided the impetus on the one hand to develop the modelling of bio-optical phenomena taking place in the sea (Woźniak & Ostrowska 1990a,b, Woźniak & Pelevin 1991, Dera 1995, Woźniak & Dera 2000, Ostrowska et al. 2000a,b), and on the other to devise remote optical methods for studying the functioning of marine ecosystems, in particular techniques based on satellite observations (Pelevin et al. 1991, Darecki et al. 1993, 2005, Ołszewski (ed.) 1995, Woźniak et al. 1995, 1997a, Rozwadowska & Isemer 1998, Antal et al. 1999, 2001, Darecki & Stramski 2004, Rozwadowska 2007, Kowalczuk et al. 2010).

“Two of the 2011 ACRM-ASNR Joint Educational Conference ab

“Two of the 2011 ACRM-ASNR Joint Educational Conference abstracts were inadvertently omitted from the publication of these abstracts in October (to view the full issue, please visit the Archives journal website selleckchem at We apologize for the oversight. “
“In the author line the name of Ansam Groshong was listed incorrectly as Ansam Naoum. The correct author line

appears above. “
“The article, “Communication Partner Training in Aphasia: A Systematic Review,” by Nina Simmons-Mackie and colleagues, published in December 2010, has been recommended by the ACRM Board of Governors as a Practice Parameter. Access the article online at “
“In Hart T, Brenner L, Clark AN, Bogner JA, Novack TA, Chervoneva I, Nakase-Richardson R, Arango-Lasprilla JC. Major and minor depression after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1211-9,

the author affiliation for CAL-101 order Brenner should read: VISN 19 Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Craig Hospital, Denver, CO (Brenner). “
“In Proud EL, Morris ME. Skilled hand dexterity in Parkinson’s disease: effects of adding a concurrent task. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:794-9, errors occurred in table 2. The correct data for table 2 are as follows: (mean ± standard deviation, minimum – maximum) Unitask, most affected hand 9.79 ± 2.20, 6.67-14.33 Unitask,

least affected hand 10.42 ± 2.43, 5.33-15.33 Dual task, most affected hand 7.05 ± 2.27, 2.33-11.33 Dual task, least affected hand 7.88 ± 2.35, 2.00-11.33 There was no statistical analysis performed on these data; however, it was erroneously reported in the discussion that the mean score for the least affected hand was higher in the dual-task condition than in the unitask condition. It should have been reported that the mean score for the least Protirelin affected hand in the dual-task condition was less than the mean score in the unitask condition. This error has not affected any other part of the discussion or the main results of the study. “
“Medical rehabilitation has frequently been compared with a black box because the processes by which clinic treatments, education, medications, aids and devices, environmental modifications, and other interventions turn inputs (impairments and activity limitations) into outcomes (improved functioning, independence, and quality of life) remain largely unknown.

However, this variability cannot be exploited in a direct way bec

However, this variability cannot be exploited in a direct way because of ploidy or genome differences among the species [12] and [13]. In order to overcome the genetic bottleneck of restricted gene flow, the development of synthetic

selleck compound amphidiploids is an effective option to diversify the cultivated gene pool. To date, several synthetics have been developed by using different diploid species through colchicine-mediated genome duplication [14], [15], [16] and [17]. These highly diverse synthetics provide an opportunity for introgression of some important traits to cultivated germplasm. However, limited success has been achieved so far in using the wild species as genetic resources for the development of resistant cultivars. Nevertheless, release of an Indian variety (GPBD 4) containing resistance to foliar diseases in chromosome segments from Arachis cardenasii is an example of success. GPBD 4 is an improved variety developed as a second cycle derivative of an interspecific cross and is grown in several states in India for its desirable traits such as foliar disease resistance and high yield. Because of its high levels of resistance, A. cardenasii Krapov. & W. C. Greg. is the most widely used wild species in groundnut breeding

programs aimed at improving foliar disease resistance. However, it is always better to look for alternative sources of resistance in order to diversify the cultivated

gene pool [4]. Realizing the PLX4032 great potential of synthetic amphidiploids for enhancing the richness of the Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene pool, this study was undertaken to broaden the genetic base of cultivated groundnut by introgressing resistance genes into five cultivated genotypes. We report the development of diverse genetic materials in groundnut with potential for several genetic and breeding applications. Synthetic amphidiploids ISATGR 278-18 [ICG 8138 (Arachis duranesis Kaprov. & W. C. Greg.) × ICG 13160 (Arachis batizocoi Kaprov. & W. C. Greg.)] and ISATGR 5B [ICG 8960 (Arachis magna Kaprov., W. C. Greg. & C. E. Simpson) × ICG 8209 (A. batizocoi Kaprov. & W. C. Greg.)] with 2n = 2x = 40 were generated at ICRISAT (Hyderabad, India). Seeds from these amphidiploids were planted in a glasshouse at the University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad, India. Both amphidiploids were used to generate backcross populations with five elite varieties/genotypes, namely ICGV 91114, ICGS 76, ICGV 91278, JL 24, and DH 86 after making two backcrosses. Flowers of cultivated genotypes were emasculated a day before pollination. Cross pollination was carried out before 10:00 a.m. on the following day by using the synthetic amphidiploids as pollen parents. Cotton swabs impregnated with gibberellic acid (GA3) (0.5 mL; 75 mg L− 1) were wrapped around the base of pollinated pistils.

In accordance to a typical exposure scenario approx 3 g of the f

In accordance to a typical exposure scenario approx. 3 g of the formulation were applied to hands, arms, legs, feet, face and neck of each volunteer (approx. 50% of body surface). At least 26 piston hubs were applied from the pump spray bottle and residual content of

IR3535® in the learn more bottle was determined thereafter by weighing. Subjects were permitted to take showers 12 h after application of the formulation. Urine samples from the subjects were collected in predetermined intervals (one hour before application, and then 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h after application). After determination of the total urine volume, two aliquots of 50 ml were stored at −20 °C. Blood samples (10 mL) were also taken at predefined time points (24 h before application, directly after application of IR3535®, and 0.5, 1,

1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h after application of IR3535®) by the supervising physician with heparinized syringes. Blood samples were immediately centrifuged for 15 min at 1 560 x g to separate erythrocytes and plasma. Plasma samples were then rapidly frozen and stored at −70 °C until further sample preparation and analysis. IR3535®1 and IR3535®-free acid 2 in urine and plasma Crizotinib manufacturer were determined by LC–MS/MS using electrospray ionization. Processed plasma and urine samples were separated on a ReproSil Pur ODS3 HPLC column (2 mm × 150 mm; 5 μm; Maisch, Ammerbuch, Germany) using an Agilent 1100 autosampler and an Agilent 1100 HPLC-pump (Agilent, Waldbronn, Germany). Separation was performed by gradient elution with water containing 0.1% formic acid (solvent A)

and methanol (solvent B) using the following conditions: 90% A, 10% B, isocratic for 2 min, linear increase to 100% B within 10 min, followed by 100% B for 5 min, at a flow-rate of 200 μL/min. The HPLC-system was directly coupled to a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer (API 2000 Q-Trap, Applied Biosystems, Darmstadt, Germany). Analytes were detected in the positive-ion mode at a vaporizer temperature of 400 °C and a TurboIon® Spray voltage of +4.0 kV. Spectral data were recorded with nitrogen as collision gas (CAD = 4) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Mass transitions Dehydratase monitored during the separation are listed in Table 3. The following mass transitions were used for quantification: m/z 180–110 for the internal standard phenacetin, m/z 216–170 for IR3535®1, and m/z 188–86 for IR3535®-free acid 2. Quantification of IR3535®1 and IR3535®-free acid 2 in human plasma was performed in 200 μL aliquots of the plasma samples after thawing at 4 °C for 2 h and fortification with 5 μL of the internal standard phenacetin (1 mg/L in water) (Kress, 2009). Subsequently, 200 μL of methanol were added to each sample. Samples were then vortexed and centrifuged for 20 min at 20.000 × g at 4 °C.

This subaverage for each data entry is calculated as the grand av

This subaverage for each data entry is calculated as the grand average (with one participant removed). Therefore when N = 18 participants, each data entry is the mean of 17 participants instead of one ( Bryce et al., 2011, Miller et al., 1998 and Ulrich and Miller, 2001). This method is found to reduce variation

and increase signal to noise ratio. In order to compensate for the artificial reduction of variance a correction is used to adjust the critical F value. Onset latencies of the smoothed LRP waveform were determined at 70% of the relevant peak’s amplitude. Muscle activity was recorded using EMG. Using an MP150 data acquisition unit (Biopac Inc.) EMG was measured by EMG110C amplifiers. EMG110S shielded touch-proof leads where connected to two disposable cloth-based hypoallergenic Ag-AgCl EL504 recording disc electrodes. The electrodes were placed along the left Trametinib and right flexors of the thumb (flexor pollicis this website brevis). An electrode on the left elbow was used as a ground. Before the electrodes were applied the skin was washed with soap and cleaned with alcohol wipes. The electrodes were attached by adhesive solid gel. EMG was sampled at 2000 Hz and band-pass filtered between 10 and 500 Hz. The data were then rectified and scaled relative to the maximum

amplitude in each individual as measured from continuous data. EMG was baseline corrected between −100 and 0 msec relative to stimulus presentation and is displayed as a percentage of the maximum value measured. Epochs extended from −100 to 1000 msec relative to stimulus presentation. Grand average EMG waves were calculated for each condition and smoothed with a 50 msec moving average window. Point-by-point group (3) × congruency (3) ANOVAs were performed on the mean amplitudes of correct hand activity and incorrect hand activity between 200 and 600 msec. In order for effects to be considered significant they had to be longer than 20 sampling points at an alpha

level of p < .01 ( Szucs and Soltész, 2010a and Szucs et al., 2009b). As stated previously, first the major ERP components (P3a, P3b, N450 and LRP) were identified in the original (raw) ERP waveforms to examine differences in the early stimulus and later response stages of processing. Second, group × congruency ANOVA's were examined to isolate congruency effects. If significant congruency effects were identified, stimulus and response mafosfamide conflict effects in the difference waves were analyzed (RC − CON, SC − CON, RC − SC). Accuracy and RT values are presented in Table 2. A repeated measures ANOVA of group (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults) × condition was performed on RT and accuracy data. In terms of accuracy there was a significant congruency effect [F(2,102) = 8.63, ɛ = .536, p = .0040]. Post hoc Tukey contrasts revealed that there were more incorrect responses in the RC condition compared to SC condition (p = .0012, 88.9 vs 93.8%) and compared to the congruent condition (p = .

The antioxidant activity found for the honeys in the present stud

The antioxidant activity found for the honeys in the present study most likely resulted from the interaction between taxifolin and the other identified phenolic compounds. Gallic acid was also found

in all the honey samples in quantities ranging from 18.2 to 92.7 μg/100 g. Indeed, the presence of gallic acid has been reported in honeys from several countries including Portugal (Andrade et al., 1997), New Zealand (Yao et al., 2003), Australia (Yao, Jiang, Singanusong, Datta, & Raymont, 2004) and selleck kinase inhibitor Brazil (Silva et al., 2013). The results of the antimicrobial activity of the honey samples CAD1, CAD2 CAD3, CAD4, SAD1, SAD2 and SAD3 are presented in Table 4. Among the studied samples, the acetate fractions corresponding to CAD4, SAD3 and CAD3 were active against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, C. krusei,

C. tropicalis and C. albicans with MIC values (minimal inhibitory concentration) ranging from 256 to 512 μg mL−1. The samples that showed the best antimicrobial activities also had the highest total phenolic contents. The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds has been reported by several research groups in studies on Gram+ and Gram− bacteria, as well as yeasts (Estevinho et Protease Inhibitor Library cell assay al., 2008 and Kačániová et al., 2011). Two of the three honey samples that showed the highest antimicrobial activity (CAD3; CAD4) had similar phenolic profiles that were distinct from the third sample (SAD3). However, other factors, in addition to the phenolic composition, like the presence of hydrogen peroxide, catalase and glucose oxidase, which are known to be present in honeys of diverse origins (Weston, Brocklebank, & Lu, 2000), may have contributed

to the antimicrobial activity of the studied honeys. Moreover, the presence of a high content of catechol in SAD3 could contribute to its bioactivity. The honeys CAD2, CAD4 and SAD3 showing showed a high frequency of the Clidemia (Melastomataceae) and Myrcia (Myrtaceae) pollen types and together with CAD3 showed the highest total phenolic contents. In the evaluation of the antioxidant activity, PAK6 the highest ABTS + cation radical scavenging capacity was observed for the samples that displayed the highest total phenolic contents. In the antimicrobial activity tests, the best results were ascribed to samples CAD4, SAD3 and CAD3. We report the presence of the flavonoid taxifolin in honeys from stingless bees and the presence of catechol in Brazilian honey samples for the first time. The authors acknowledge the Brazilian agency Research Foundation of the State of Amazonas (FAPEAM) for the financial support. “
“Brazil is part of a new group of wine-producing countries. Wines produced in the Serra Gaúcha region, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in the South part of Brazil represent 90% of the Brazilian wine production. The cultivation of grapevines and wine production has considerable social and economic impact in this region.

This is accomplished by first raising the potential to a level su

This is accomplished by first raising the potential to a level sufficient to oxidize the gold surface. This cause desorption of the carbohydrate oxidation products. The electrode potential is then lowered to reduce the electrode surface back to gold (Dionex, 2012). The association of analytical techniques using experimental design, with principal component analysis (Barros Neto, Scarminio, & Bruns, 2003),

has been increasingly applied, facilitating the establishing of correlations between various raw materials, based on their chromatographic profiles (Garcia et al., 2009). This study aims to evaluate the performance and correlation between two different chromatographic systems: HPLC–HPAEC-PAD and post-column derivatization HPLC-UV–Vis, applied for carbohydrate determination (method ISO 11292), following simplex-centroid design, to verify the ability to Fasudil mouse distinguish a mixture of triticale and acai in arabica coffee. The samples of arabica coffee, triticale, and acai seeds were provided by the Agronomic Institute of Parana (Londrina, Parana State, Brazil). The samples were roasted and ground to achieve a colour

similar to that of commercial Afatinib datasheet roasted and ground coffee, presenting a medium roast. For the adulterant study, sampling followed the simplex-centroid experimental design, represented by an equilateral triangle, with a total of 10 different compositions coded from 1 to 10. The vertices of which, corresponded to the pure matrices. The edges corresponded to the binary mixes of the same proportion; the central point – to the ternary mix with equal proportions; and the three axial points – to the proportions 4:1:1, 1:4:1, Clomifene 1:1:4. All samples of arabica coffee-triticale-acai were prepared in duplicate for both systems, except for the central point, that samples were prepared in triplicate. The preparation was given by weighing different proportions of the matrices in order to always reach on a dry weight basis 0.3000 g for the analysis by HPLC–HPAEC-PAD, and 0.2000 g for the analysis by post-column derivatization reaction HPLC-UV–Vis.

In sequence, samples with the respective weights, according to each method, were hydrolyzed, by transferring to a 500 mL Erlenmeyer with screw-cap, with adding 50 mL of 1.00 mol L−1 hydrochloric acid, and by placing in a water bath thermostated at 85 °C for 180 min, stirring every 30 min manually. After, the solution was cooled down with tap water until room temperature, filtered with a blue-stripe pleated paper into a 100 mL volumetric flask that was completing up to the mark with ultrapure water. An aliquot of 10.0 mL of the solution was passed through a C18 cartridge (Sep Pak, Waters) preconditioned with methanol and water, and in a 0.22 μm nylon membrane (Millipore), collecting the filtrate in vials that were injected into the respective chromatographic systems.