In this study, we demonstrated that patients with DHF had reduced SOCS1 expression and elevated miR-150 levels. The miR-155 http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Bleomycin-sulfate.html expression was observed in patients with DF, but not in patients with DHF (Fig. 3(b)). MicroRNAs are an abundant class of highly conserved small non-coding RNAs. They primarily function through suppressing the expression of target genes by binding to their 3′-UTRs of target mRNAs inducing mRNA degradation or suppressed translation. MicroRNAs have been shown to regulate a variety of biological processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation,
apoptosis,36 and 37 and viral infections.38 and 39 The role of miRNAs in the regulation of innate immunity was first reported by Taganov et al.,40 who showed that miR-146 is a negative feedback regulator of TLR signalling. We have previously reported that low innate miR-21 expression, resulting in high TGF-β receptor 2 expression, correlates to antenatal IgE production and development of allergic rhinitis.22 In this study, we found that miR-21 was not associated with dengue infections, but miR-150 was significantly
associated with DHF. miR-150 has been found to be highly expressed in immune cells, and has a permissive function in the maturation, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid cells.41 Many of the miR-150 target transcripts identified so far are pro-apoptotic and differentiation proteins, such as early growth response 2 (EGR2), c-myb, and notch homologue 3 (NOTCH3).42, 43 and 44 Aberrant methylation of the SOCS-1 occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma45 and Gfi-1, a transcription repressor, was also approved binding on SOCS1 gene promoter ZD1839 manufacturer and regulated SOCS1 expression.11 Here, we identified SOCS1 as a possible target of miR-150 in human CD14+ cells and confirmed that miR-150 down-regulates
SOCS1 expression levels in DENV-2-infected cells (Fig. 4(c)). SOCS1 expression levels are reported to increase rapidly following macrophage exposure to inflammatory cytokines and TLR ligands.46 and 47 We showed that SOCS1 mRNA expression increased in CD14+ from cells in response to DENV-2 infection (Fig. 4(b)). SOCS1 protein level is more critical than mRNA expression; however, we were unable to determine the protein level from the DENV-2 cohort due to the limitations of remnant specimens. Further studies are required to determine whether other miRNAs or SOCS family proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of DHF. In summary, we found that patients with DHF had elevated miR-150 expression, which was associated with the suppression of SOCS1 expression. The overexpression of miR-150 suppressed SOCS1 expression, confirming that SOCS1 expression is regulated by miR-150. These data highlight that abnormal immune responses in patients with DHF can be potentially controlled by modulating miRNA expression. We thank Dr. Eng-Yen Huang for his advice on the statistical analyses. For technical assistance, we would like to thank Ms.