These results show that yeast hydrolysate with below 10 kDa molec

These results show that yeast hydrolysate with below 10 kDa molecular weight possesses very low toxicity as indicated in this SD rat model.”
“In this study, we

investigated the possibility of using local administration of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) to induce tissue regeneration in periodontal defects in a rat model of periodontitis. BMMSCs isolated from rats were mixed with 0.9% NaCl solution and injected into periodontal defects. Control groups were 0.9% NaCl solution or left untreated. The clinical assessments, x-rays, and histological examinations were used to evaluate the effect. At 12 wks post-transplantation, quantitative analysis revealed average probing bone loss values of 1.2 +/- 0.19, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 1.7 +/- 0.14; the bone regeneration rate was 53%, 45%, and 44% in GSK 4529 the BMMSC+NaCl group, NaCl group, and untreated group, respectively. The clinical assessments, x-rays, and histological examinations revealed significant periodontal tissue regeneration in the BMMSC injection group, compared with the control groups. The ELISA results showed that TNF, IFN, and IL1

were 2,674.88 +/- 102.77 pg/mL vs. 3,422.1 +/- 51.98 BMS-777607 clinical trial pg/mL, 609.85 +/- 25.5 pg/mL vs. 803.79 +/- 33.85 pg/mL, and 1,038.46 +/- 76.29 pg/mL vs. 1,175.26 +/- 105.55 pg/mL in the BMMSC+NaCl group and NaCl group, respectively, indicating that BMMSC A-1210477 in vitro injection inhibited the inflammatory factors TNF, IFN, and IL1. Our results indicate that local administration of BMMSCs can repair

defects due to periodontitis, exerting anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions.”
“A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘In pneumonectomy patients, is buttressing the bronchial stump associated with a reduced incidence of bronchopleural fistula?’. Fifty-seven papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. One prospective randomized controlled trial was identified, which found significantly lower rates of bronchopleural fistula and empyema after pneumonectomy with the use of pedicled intercostal flap buttressing. Intercostal muscle flaps and pericardial flaps have been used in case series of high-risk patients, e.g. those with neoadjuvant therapy or extended resections, with low rates of subsequent bronchopleural fistulae. There is the least-reported evidence for thoracodorsal artery perforator and omental flaps. There is relatively little published evidence beyond the single randomized trial identified, with only a few comparison studies to guide clinicians.

Research proposals to further enlighten these associations were t

Research proposals to further enlighten these associations were to be defined. Methods: A think-tank discussion was held on the annual ICI-RS meeting in 2011. The published literature between 1966 and 2011 was reviewed and research

proposals were defined with all congress participants. Results: Post-void residual, bladder diverticula or calculi, vesico-ureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, renal insufficiency, and urinary retention appear with greater prevalence in patients with symptoms or signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia. BPO may directly or indirectly be responsible for these complications but conclusive evidence for BPO as the primary cause does not exist. Many of the complications have a multifactorial etiology and BPO is only partially responsible. It is currently impossible to define men who will develop complications. Navitoclax research buy Conclusions: In contrast to the widespread belief of urologist, there is only rudimentary data available showing no convincing

association between urinary tract complications and BPO. The ICI-RS proposes find more that prospective trials are conducted to demonstrate the association between complications and BPO by using cystometry, pressure-flow (P/F) studies, and other commonly used BPO parameters in men with complications and comparing those with a cohort of age-matched men without complications. Non-invasive proxy parameters of BPO, for example, ultrasonic measurement

of detrusor wall thickness, can be used instead of P/F studies especially in longitudinal trials. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31:322-326, 2012. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Rocuronium is reported to be associated with injection pain or withdrawal movement (IPWM). This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of different pharmacological treatments used to decrease the incidence of the rocuronium-induced IPWM. Selleck IPI-145 We searched the Cochrane Library, Embase and PubMed for randomized controlled trials comparing a pharmacological drug with a placebo to prevent the rocuronium-induced IPWM and found 37 studies with 5,595 patients. Overall incidence of rocuronium-induced IPWM was 74 %. Pretreatment with opioids [risk ratio (RR) 0.16; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.09-0.29], lidocaine (0.47; 0.35-0.64), and ketamine (0.41; 0.22-0.77) were effective in decreasing IPWM. Lidocaine pretreatment with venous occlusion (0.40; 0.32-0.49) and opioids pretreatment with venous occlusion (0.77; 0.61-0.96) were also effective. Mixing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) with rocuronium (0.15; 0.06-0.34) was also efficacious in reducing IPWM. Indirect comparison shows that the RR of NaHCO3 admixture and pretreatment with opioids were lower than that of the other four interventions (pretreatments of ketamine or lidocaine, and lidocaine or opioids with venous occlusion).

However, the glial response can also mediate a variety of deleter

However, the glial response can also mediate a variety of deleterious events

related to the production of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant reactive species, prostaglandins, cytokines, and so on. In this review, we discuss signaling pathway the possible protective and deleterious effects of glial cells in the neurodegenerative diseases and examine how these factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. This review suggests that further investigation concerning glial reaction in Parkinson’s disease may lead to disease-modifying therapeutic approaches and may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.”
“Post-mortem analyses of human brain tissue samples from patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders BIIB057 concentration have demonstrated dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A common characteristic of the aforementioned disorders is the intracellular accumulation and aggregation of proteins due to genetic mutations or exogenous factors, leading to the activation of a stress mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). This

mechanism aims to restore cellular homeostasis, however, if prolonged, can trigger pro-apoptotic signals, which are thought to contribute to neuronal cell death. The authors present evidence to support the role of ER stress-induced apoptosis in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, and further examine the interplay between ER dyshomeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction, and the function of reactive oxygen species Dinaciclib manufacturer (ROS) and calcium ions (Ca2+) in the intricate relationship between the two organelles. Possible treatments for neurodegenerative diseases that are based on combating ER stress are finally presented.”
“Fe1.01Se0.38Te0.62 single crystal was successfully grown by self-flux

method, and effect of post-annealing technique on structure and superconductivity was also systemically studied. The results show the as-grown sample has an excellent superconductivity with an onset transition temperature T-c(onset) similar to 14.6 K and a zero resistivity temperature T-c(zero) similar to 13.4 K. After annealing at 400 degrees C for 48 h, excess Fe in the post-annealing sample appears with Fe1.06Se0.34Te0.66 formula, and superconductivity was strongly suppressed with T-c(zero) similar to 8.0 K. The experiments found that excess Fe is located at Fe(2) site with local magnetic moment. According to the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg (WHH) theory, the upper critical fields H-c2 at zero temperature were estimated to be 54.2 T for as-grown sample and 28.2 T for post-annealing sample. Two abnormal drops in DC magnetization are found near 40 K and 125 K for all samples, the one near 40 K may be related to a spin freezing of excess Fe and that near 120 K should be corresponding to the structural transition from tetragonal to monoclinic. This is confirmed by the strain measurement.

Secondary endpoints: biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), patien

Secondary endpoints: biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), patient and graft survival, safety. 128 patients enrolled (mean age 48.9 years; time post-transplant 48.9 months); 91 evaluated for the primary endpoint. Mean total daily dose was 0.06 mg/kg (BID) and 0.07 mg/kg (QD); 79.1% required one/no dose

changes post-conversion to maintain recommended blood-trough levels; average dose increase was small (0.6-0.7 mg/day) with more dose increases in patients on the lowest tacrolimus BID doses. Renal function remained stable and non-inferiority of tacrolimus QD against tacrolimus BID was demonstrated. There were no BPAR episodes; patient and graft survival were 100%. Adverse events were few; none led to dose modifications/discontinuation. Tacrolimus BID to tacrolimus QD conversion BLZ945 is straightforward and does not compromise renal function in stable kidney transplant patients in the short term.”
“Study Design. Case report and review of the literature.

Objective. We report a case of Grisel’s syndrom with a delayed diagnosis. The patient’s first presentation in PHA-739358 mw our pediatric orthopedics department was 2 month after surgery (cochlea implantation) with a persistent torticollis. Radiographs revealed a subluxated atlantoaxial joint.

We treated our patient with manual repositioning and calculated antibiotics, which lead to a restitutio ad integrum within a short time.

Summary of Background Data. Grisel’s syndrome is synonymous with rare nontraumatic, rotational subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint (C1-C2). All formerly reported cases showed a clear association to infection or were related to head and neck surgery. Still, there is a lack of understanding about pathogenetic features and causative agents. In 1977 Fielding proposed a classification of the atlantoaxial PFTα cost subluxation and stage-related therapy was recommended.

Methods. Our patient was a 11-year-old girl with a torticollis after insertion of a cochlea implant. After surgery, physiotherapy was performed because of her wryneck. As the symptoms

did not improve, she was presented in our clinic. Our radiographs revealed a subluxated atlantoaxial joint.

Results. In general anesthesia we performed a manual repositioning and she was temporarily immobilized with a cervical collar for 2 weeks. In addition, we administered calculated antibiotics, although CRP and leukocytes were not elevated. The follow up showed a good repositioning within a short time.

Conclusion. At least in this case, our treatment led to shorter recovery and avoidance of halo fixation. Our new therapeutic approach to patients with Grisel’s syndrome might lead to a shorter recovery.”
“Background: Three daily portions of whole-grain foods could lower cardiovascular disease risk, but a comprehensive intervention trial was needed to confirm this recommendation.

It was observed that the CoRuCr intermediate layers provide bette

It was observed that the CoRuCr intermediate layers provide better C-axis orientation than

the Ru intermediate layers. The introduction of oxygen during the deposition of CoRuCr increases the C-axis dispersion slightly but it is still comparable to that of Ru intermediate layer. Grain size and grain size distribution were reduced with CoRuCr-oxide intermediate layers. Magnetic properties were also optimized, indicating that the CoRuCr-oxide intermediate layers are good candidates for perpendicular Fer-1 concentration recording media. (c) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3077203]“
“The fungi, Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 13144) and Penicillium chrysogenium (ATCC 9480) transformed resveratrol (1) to resveratrol-3-O-sulphate (4). The former, in addition, gave 5-methoxyresveratrol-3-O–glucoside (2) with the latter yielding 5-methoxyresveratrol-3-O-sulphate (3). The structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Evaluation of

biological activity of metabolites through GSK1210151A research buy a series of mammalian cell based assays indicated that resveratrol tends to lose its anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-oxidant activities with the substitution of its hydroxyl groups.”
“Background: The causal association between hepatitis virus infections and lichen planus (LP) remains a matter of controversy. Reliable figures for German patients are still lacking.

Patients and Methods: We analyzed the prevalence of serum antibodies against hepatitis B and C viruses p38 MAPK pathway (HBV, HCV) in 265 LP patients and compared the results to 257 patients with

chronic urticaria (URT) and 222 patients with malignant melanoma (MM). Additionally, we analyzed age- and sex-specific differences.

Results: The prevalence of HBV (13.2% or 14.7%) antibodies was significantly higher in patients with LP and URT patients than in the MM control group (HBV: 5.4%, p < 0.001). The prevalence of HCV antibodies among LP and URT patients (2.6% or 0.8%) was not significantly greater (p > 0.05) than in MM patients (0.4%). The prevalences of HBV and HCV in the MM control group were comparable to those in the general German population (HBV: 5-8%, HCV: 0.4-0.7%). An analysis by sub-groups showed that these differences resulted from sex- and age-dependent prevalences. HBV antibodies were significantly more common only in male LP patients (16.1%) and in male (20.0%) and female URT patients (15.6%) aged 31-60 years. The greater prevalence of HCV in female LP patients older than 60 years of age was not significant.

Conclusions: LP is not specifically associated with hepatitis B or C antibodies in the Caucasian population of Germany. The higher prevalences of HBV antibodies found in LP and URT patients may be a reflection of age- and sex- related factors rather than disease-specific exposure to HBV infections.

Limitations of the targeted surveillance program were noted and i

Limitations of the targeted surveillance program were noted and include: (1) a lost contact rate of 32.4%; (2) delays in first surveillance assessment; (3) a large number of children who required on-going

monitoring; and (4) extensive MS-275 inhibitor diagnostic assessments were completed on children with normal hearing. Examination of the lost contact rate revealed indigenous children were more likely to be documented as lost contact. In addition, children with one risk factor only were significantly more likely to not attend a surveillance appointment.

Conclusions: Positive cases of postnatal hearing loss were detected through the targeted surveillance program. However, the limitations of the program question the usefulness of this Cell Cycle inhibitor service delivery model. For targeted surveillance to continue, time frames for assessment, assessments performed, and discharge criteria

need to be revisited. The contribution of individual and combined risk factors in detecting postnatal hearing loss should also be examined in more detail. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The global impetus to identify curative therapies has been fuelled by the unmet needs of patients in the context of a growing heart failure pandemic. To date, regeneration trials in patients with cardiovascular disease have used stem-cell-based therapy in the period immediately after myocardial injury, in an attempt to halt progression towards ischaemic cardiomyopathy, or in the setting of congestive heart failure, to target the disease process

and prevent organ decompensation. Worldwide, several thousand patients have now been treated using autologous cell-based therapy; the safety and feasibility of this approach has been established, pitfalls have GSK2118436 been identified, and optimization procedures envisioned. Furthermore, the initiation of phase III trials to further validate the therapeutic value of cell-based regenerative medicine and address the barriers to successful clinical implementation has led to resurgence in the enthusiasm for such treatments among patients and health-care providers. In particular, poor definition of cell types used, diversity in cell-handling procedures, and functional variability intrinsic to autologously-derived cells have been identified as the main factors limiting adoption of cell-based therapies. In this Review, we summarize the experience obtained from trials of ‘first-generation’ cell-based therapy, and emphasize the advances in the purification and lineage specification of stem cells that have enabled the development of ‘next-generation’ stem-cell-based therapies targeting cardiovascular disease.

The scope of this review encompasses the latest findings that imp

The scope of this review encompasses the latest findings that improve our understanding of the motility disorders associated with colonic dysfunction in both the paediatric and adult population suffering from constipation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Organismal phylogeny depends on cell division, stasis, mutational divergence, cell mergers (by sex or symbiogenesis),

lateral gene transfer and death. The tree of life is a useful metaphor for organismal genealogical history provided we recognize that branches sometimes fuse. Hennigian cladistics emphasizes only lineage splitting, ignoring most other major phylogenetic processes. Though methodologically useful it has been conceptually confusing and harmed taxonomy, especially in mistakenly opposing ancestral (paraphyletic) taxa. The history of life involved about 10 really major innovations in cell structure. In membrane topology, there were five successive kinds of cell: (i) negibacteria, with two bounding membranes, (ii) unibacteria, with one bounding and no internal membranes, (iii) eukaryotes with endomembranes and mitochondria, (iv) plants with chloroplasts and (v) finally, chromists with plastids inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Membrane chemistry

divides negibacteria into the more advanced Glycobacteria (e. g. Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria) with outer membrane lipolysaccharide and primitive Eobacteria without lipopolysaccharide (deserving intenser study). It also divides unibacteria into posibacteria, ancestors learn more of eukaryotes, and archaebacteria-the Adavosertib cell line sisters (not ancestors) of eukaryotes and the youngest bacterial phylum. Anaerobic eobacteria, oxygenic cyanobacteria, desiccation-resistant posibacteria and finally neomura (eukaryotes plus archaebacteria) successively transformed Earth. Accidents and organizational constraints

are as important as adaptiveness in body plan evolution.”
“Electrical transport across pulsed laser deposited zinc oxide (ZnO)/aluminum nitride (AlN)/Si(100) thin film structures has been studied using conducting atomic force microscopy. Current versus voltage spectroscopy performed on the samples with varying AlN layer thickness (t), revealed asymmetric nonlinear behavior with a finite zero current region. The effective barrier height of the system is found to be (similar to 0.2 eV). The width of the zero current region was found to decrease exponentially with respect to t finally attaining the bulk band gap value. Density functional theory based calculations were carried out on the AlN and AlN-ZnO composite surface to investigate the band gap variation and ZnO adsorption on AlN. Results obtained by these calculations are in harmony with the experimental findings. Calculated values of the bulk cohesive energy explain the growth of the ZnO in an axis perpendicular to the surface supporting the experimentally observed results.

In general, the new coordinate

In general, the new coordinate JPH203 supplier system makes an accurate anatomical registration of breasts possible, which suggests its wide applicability wherever 2-D mammogram registration is required.”
“Negative-sense (NS) RNA viruses deliver into cells a mega-dalton RNA-protein complex competent for transcription. Within this complex, the RNA is protected in a nucleocapsid protein

(NP) sheath which the viral polymerase negotiates during RNA synthesis. The NP-RNA templates come as nonsegmented (NNS) or segmented (SNS), necessitating distinct strategies for transcription by their polymerases. Atomic-level understanding of the NP-RNA of both NNS and SNS RNA viruses show that the RNA must be transiently dissociated from NP during RNA synthesis. Here we summarize selleck chemical and compare the polymerases of NNS and SNS RNA viruses, and the current structural data on the polymerases. Those comparisons inform us on the evolution of related RNA synthesis

machines which use two distinct mechanisms for mRNA cap formation.”
“Memory is a reference formed from a past experience that is used to respond to present situations. However, the world is dynamic and situations change, so it is important to update the memory with new information each time it is reactivated in order to adjust the response in the future. Recent researches indicate that memory may undergo a dynamic process that could work as an updating mechanism. This process which is called reconsolidation involves destabilization of the memory after

it is reactivated, followed selleck screening library by restabilization. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the initial destabilization process of reconsolidation requires protein degradation. Using protein degradation inhibition as a method to block reconsolidation, recent researches suggest that reconsolidation, especially the protein degradation-dependent destabilization process is necessary for memory reorganization.”
“OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine whether the MBL2 C(-290) G and G161A, MASP2 A359G, AMELX C287T and C522T, and ENAM C2452T polymorphisms are associated with dental caries.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA of 95 Polish children with ‘higher caries experience’ (HC) and 84 subjects with ‘lower caries experience’ (LC) belonging to two age-groups (5 and 13 years old) was extracted from the buccal mucosa. SNPs were genotyped with PCRRFLP methods.

RESULTS: Among 5-year-old children, we found significantly higher percentage of subjects carrying MBL2 (-290) G allele in HC group compared with LC group (43.2% vs 17.6%, P = 0.023). MBL2 C(-290) G-G161A C-G haplotype was overrepresented in LC group in 5-yearolds (P = 0.01), while the opposite association was observed in 13-year-olds, where C-G was overrepresented in HC group (P = 0.028). In 5-year-old children, the frequency of MBL2 G-G haplotype was higher in HC group compared with LC subjects (P = 0.

There were fewer and smaller afferent vascular buds in the rats o

There were fewer and smaller afferent vascular buds in the rats of the aged group than in the young control group. The ratio of the non-calcified selleck chemicals llc to the calcified layers in the rats of the aged group significantly decreased, compared with that of the young

control group (P < 0.01).

Rats can spontaneously establish intervertebral disc age-related degeneration. The expression of collagen types II and X, numbers and areas of afferent vascular buds, the ratio of the non-calcified to the calcified layers, and water and glycosaminoglycan contents in the nucleus pulposus are sensitive indexes of intervertebral disc degeneration.”
“Background: The development of the fetal endocannabinoid receptor system may be vulnerable to maternal cannabis use during pregnancy and may produce long-term consequences in children. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between gestational cannabis

use and childhood attention problems and aggressive behavior.

Methods: Using a large general population birth cohort, we examined the associations between parental prenatal cannabis and tobacco use and childhood behavior problems at 18 months measured using the Child Behavior Checklist in N=4077 children. Substance use was measured in early pregnancy.

Results: Linear regression analyses demonstrated that gestational exposure to cannabis is associated with behavioral problems in see more early childhood but only in girls AZD0530 datasheet and only in the area of increased aggressive behavior

(B = 2.02; 95% CI: 0.30-3.73; p = 0.02) and attention problems (B = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.46-1.62; p < 0.001). Furthermore, this study showed that long-term (but not short term) tobacco exposure was associated with behavioral problems in girls (B = 1.16; 95% Cl: 0.20-2.12; p = 0.02). There was no association between cannabis use of the father and child behavior problems.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that intrauterine exposure to cannabis is associated with an increased risk for aggressive behavior and attention problems as early as 18 months of age in girls, but not boys. Further research is needed to explore the association between prenatal cannabis exposure and child behavior at later ages. Our data support educating future mothers about the risk to their babies should they smoke cannabis during pregnancy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In the present investigation, polysulfone (PSu) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by solvent casting method. Layered silicates, viz., sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT), Cloisite 93A, and Cloisite 30B were dispersed in PSu to obtain nanocomposite membranes. PSu nanocomposite membranes were tested for mechanical performance, water uptake, thermal properties, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

“In this paper we used a general stochastic processes fram

“In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence rate function that characterizes epidemic models. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche’s (LHD) incidence rate function, which results

from modeling the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the JNJ-26481585 solubility dmso per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS model with both the classical and the LHD incidence rate functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR model with both incidence rate functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the model with the LHD incidence rate may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied ISRIB here. First, our model was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS model with

classical incidence rate predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS model with LHD incidence rate will reach either the disease free Vorinostat solubility dmso equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the models’ Poincare map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics.”
“Chinese Erhualian boars have dramatically smaller testes, greater concentrations of circulating androgens, and fewer Sertoli cells than Western commercial breeds. To identify QTL for boar reproductive traits, testicular weight, epididymal weight, seminiferous tubular diameter at 90 and 300 d, and serum testosterone concentration

at 300 d were measured in 347 F(2) boars from a White Duroc x Chinese Erhualian cross. A whole genome scan was performed with 183 microsatellites covering 19 porcine chromosomes. A total of 16 QTL were identified on 9 chromosomes, including 1% genome-wide significant QTL for testicular weight at 90 and 300 d and seminiferous tubular diameter at 90 d on SSCX, and for epididymal weight and testosterone concentration at 300 d on SSC7. Two 5% genome-wide significant QTL were detected for testicular weight at 300 d on SSC1 and seminiferous tubular diameter at 300 d on SSC16. Nine suggestive QTL were found on SSC1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, and 14. Chinese Erhualian alleles were not systematically favorable for greater reproductive performance.