Moreover, bath superfusion of the specific D1 receptor agonist SKF-39393, but not the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole, significantly reduced peak amplitude of evoked inhibitory synaptic events. DA reduced the frequency of miniature check details IPSCs without altering the amplitude, while having no effect on the amplitude of IPSCs elicited by pressure application of GABA. These results suggest that DA may modulate inhibitory synaptic transmission in CeA through D1 receptor activation primarily by a presynaptic mechanism.
“There has been considerable recent interest in comparing the circuit and monoamine-based mechanisms of aversive and reward-associative conditioning in a number of vertebrate and invertebrate model systems. The mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis provides a unique opportunity
to explore changes in the neural and chemical pathways underlying these two different types of conditioning as its feeding circuitry has been thoroughly characterised. Animals can learn after a single trial to associate the same CS (amyl acetate) either with a punishment (quinine) or reward (sucrose), showing either a reduced or an elevated feeding response, respectively, to the CS. We previously showed that reward conditioning strengthened the direct excitatory pathway from the lips to the feeding central pattern generator in the buccal ganglia through the activation of feeding interneurons in the cerebral ganglia. Now we demonstrate that aversive conditioning enhances the strength of a different inhibitory pathway that suppresses feeding but has no effect on the excitatory pathway. Here we
show that consolidation click here of long-term memory (LTM) in reward conditioning depends on dopamine but not octopamine. In contrast, aversive LTM depends on octopamine but not dopamine. Octopamine is the invertebrate equivalent of noradrenalin, so these results on the monoamine dependence of reward and aversive conditioning in Lymnaea resemble, at the transmitter receptor level, those in mammals but are the opposite of those in another invertebrate group, the insects. “
“Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression; mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV (BDNF-KIV) Edoxaban exhibit a depression-like phenotype. We tested our hypothesis that deficits caused by promoter IV deficiency (depression-like behavior, decreased levels of BDNF, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus) could be rescued by a 3-week treatment with different types of antidepressants: fluoxetine, phenelzine, duloxetine, or imipramine. Each antidepressant reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test without affecting locomotor activity in the open field test in both BDNF-KIV and control wild type mice, except that phenelzine increased locomotor activity in wild type mice and anxiety-like behavior in BDNF-KIV mice.