We have applied this

method to the study of cell-cycle re

We have applied this

method to the study of cell-cycle regulators and novel microtubule-associated proteins.”

In the United States, children receive five doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine before 7 years of age. The duration of protection after five doses of DTaP is PF-6463922 datasheet unknown.


We assessed the risk of pertussis in children in California relative to the time since the fifth dose of DTaP from 2006 to 2011. This period included a large outbreak in 2010. We conducted a case-control study involving members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California who were vaccinated with DTaP at 47 to 84 months of age. We compared children with pertussis confirmed by a positive polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay with two sets of controls: those who were PCR-negative for pertussis and closely matched controls from the general population of health-plan members. We used logistic regression to examine the risk of pertussis in relation to the duration of time since the fifth DTaP dose. Children who received whole- cell pertussis vaccine during infancy or who received any pertussis-containing vaccine after their fifth dose of DTaP were excluded.


We SNX-5422 datasheet compared 277 children, 4 to 12

years of age, who were PCR-positive for pertussis with 3318 PCR-negative controls and 6086 matched controls. PCR-positive children were more likely to have received the fifth DTaP dose earlier than PCR-negative controls (P<0.001) or matched controls (P = 0.005). Comparison with PCR-negative controls yielded an odds ratio of 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 1.66), indicating that after the fifth dose of DTaP, the odds of acquiring pertussis increased by an average of 42% per year.


Protection against pertussis waned during the 5 years after the fifth dose of DTaP. (Funded by Kaiser

“Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells. Several murine DC subsets have been identified that differ in their phenotype and functional properties. In the steady state, DC precursors originating from the bone marrow give rise to lymphoid-organ-resident DCs and to migratory tissue DCs. During inflammation, an additional Cediranib (AZD2171) DC subset has been described, so-called inflammatory DCs (infDCs), which differentiate from monocytes recruited to the site of inflammation. Here, we review recent work on the development and functions of murine infDCs. We also examine the criteria that define infDCs. Finally, we discuss the characterization of human infDCs and their potential role in inflammatory diseases.”
“Background Indications for chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic disease include raised human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations 6 months after uterine evacuation of hydatidiform mole, even when values are falling. We aimed to establish whether chemotherapy is always necessary in these patients.

In fact, a trend to the reverse exists with no clinically harmful

In fact, a trend to the reverse exists with no clinically harmful effects. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;143:85-92)”
“In addition to their well-accepted role as critical effector cells in anaphylaxis and other acute APR-246 purchase IgE-mediated allergic reactions, mast cells (MCs) have been implicated in a wide variety of processes that contribute to disease or help to maintain health. Although some of these roles were first suggested by analyses of MC products or

functions in vitro, it is critical to determine whether, and under which circumstances, such potential roles actually can be performed by MCs in vivo. This review discusses recent advances in the development and analysis of mouse models to investigate the roles of MCs and MC-associated products during HKI-272 order biological responses in vivo, and comments on some of the similarities and differences in the results obtained with these newer versus older models of MC deficiency.”

gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori takes place via the oral route, possible interactions of this bacterium with human salivary proteins could occur. By using modified 1-and 2-D bacterial overlay, binding of H. pylori adhesins BabA and SabA to the whole range of salivary proteins was explored. Bound salivary receptor molecules were identified by MALDI-MS and by comparison to previously established proteome maps of whole and glandular salivas. By use of adhesin-deficient mutants, binding of H. pylori to MUC7 and gp-340 could be linked to the SabA and BabA adhesins, respectively, whereas binding to MUC5B was associated with both adhesins. Binding of H. pylori to the proline-rich glycoprotein was newly detected RAS p21 protein activator 1 and assigned to BabA adhesin whereas the SabA adhesin was found to mediate binding to newly detected receptor molecules, including carbonic anhydrase VI, secretory component, heavy chain of secretory IgA1, parotid secretory protein and zinc-alpha(2)-glycoprotein. Some of these salivary glycoproteins are known to act as scavenger molecules or are involved in innate immunity whereas others might come to modify the pathogenetic properties of this organism. In general, this 2-D bacterial overlay technique

represents a useful supplement in adhesion studies of bacteria with complex protein mixtures.”
“The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a neural site for several physiological functions related to cardiovascular regulation, pain modulation and behavioral reactions. Recently, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] has been considered as an important biologically active component of the renin-angiotensin system in the CNS. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) existence of Ang-(1-7) receptor, Mas-R, within the dorsolateral PAG (dl-PAG), (2) the role for Ang-(1-7) in modulating activity of dl-PAG neurons, and (3) the mechanisms by which Ang-(1-7) plays a regulatory role. Western blot analysis showed that Mas-R appears within the dl-PAG.

FMRP is an RNA binding protein that modulates receptor-mediated d

FMRP is an RNA binding protein that modulates receptor-mediated dendritic translation; deficiency leads to dysregulation of many proteins Berzosertib clinical trial important for synaptic plasticity. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1/5) activated translation is upregulated in FXS, and new targeted treatments that act on this system include mGluR5 antagonists and GABA agonists, which may reverse the cognitive and behavioral deficits in FXS. Matrix metalloproteinase

9 (MMP-9) is one of the proteins elevated in FXS, and minocycline reduces excess MMP-9 activity in the Fmr1 knockout mouse model of FXS. Both minocycline and mGluR5 antagonists are currently being evaluated in patients with FXS through controlled treatment trials. The premutation (55-200 CGG GS-4997 datasheet repeats) may also contribute to the mechanism of autism in approximately 10% of males and 2-3% of females. Premutations with <150 repeats exert cellular effects through a different molecular mechanism, one that involves elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA, CGG-mediated toxicity to neurons, early

cell death, and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. In those with large premutations (150-200), lowered levels of FMRP also occur.”
“Until recently, the neuropsychiatric phenotype of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) was presumed to be caused by the structural brain abnormalities and/or seizures seen in the disorder. However, advances in the molecular biology of the disorder have shown that TSC is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) overactivation syndrome, and that direct molecular pathways exist between gene mutation and cognitive/neurodevelopmental phenotype. Molecularly-targeted treatments using mTOR inhibitors (such as rapamycin) are showing great promise for the physical and neurological phenotype of TSC. Pre-clinical and early-phase clinical studies of the cognitive and neurodevelopmental features of TSC suggest that some of the neuropsychiatric phenotypes might also be reversible, even in adults with the disorder. TSC, fragile X, neurofibromatosis type 1, and disorders associated with phosphatase and

tensin homo (PTEN) mutations, all signal through the mTOR signaling pathway, with the TSC1-TSC2 protein complex as a molecular switchboard at its center. Together, these disorders represent Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) as much as 14% of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, we suggest that this signaling pathway is a key to the underlying pathophysiology of a significant subset of individuals with ASD. The study of molecularly targeted treatments in TSC and related disorders, therefore, may be of scientific and clinical value not only to those with TSC, but to a larger population that may have a neuropsychiatric phenotype attributable to mTOR overactivation or dysregulation.”
“Autism is a complex and clinically heterogeneous disorder with a spectrum of symptoms.

p , Kv7 2/3 channel-preferring opener), or S-(1) (10-60 mg/kg, i

p., Kv7.2/3 channel-preferring opener), or S-(1) (10-60 mg/kg, i.p.. Kv7.2/3 channel-preferring opener), and rectal body temperature was measured 15-120 min post-injection. Retigabine (>10 mg/kg), ICA-27243 (>= 10 mg/kg), and S-(1) (>= 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently lowered rectal body temperature with maximal doses of each Kv7 channel opener inducing a marked

drop (>4 degrees C) in rectal temperature. The Kv7 channel openers showed differential temporal pharmacodynamics, which likely reflects their different pharmacokinetic profiles. Pretreatment with the pan-Kv7 channel blocker XE-991 (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) completely reversed the hypothermic effect of the pan-Kv7 opener, retigabine (15 mg/kg), whereas ICA-27243-induced hypothermia (10 mg/kg) could only be partially prevented by XE-991. Because ICA-27743 and S-(1) are Kv7.2/3 channel subunit-preferring compounds, this suggests that the JNJ-26481585 purchase Kv7.2/3 channel isoform is the predominant substrate for Kv7 channel opener-evoked hypothermia. These data indicate the physiological relevance of Kv7 channel function on body temperature regulation which may potentially reside from central inhibitory Kv7 channel activity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

dengue virus replication, an incomplete A-1331852 cell line cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein prM, generates a mixture of mature (prM-less) and prM-containing, immature extracellular particles. In this study, sequential immunoprecipitation and cryoelectron microscopy revealed a third type of extracellular particles, the partially mature particles, as the major prM-containing particles in a dengue serotype 2 virus. Changes in the proportion of viral particles in the pr-M junction mutants exhibiting altered levels of prM cleavage suggest that the partially mature particles may Bcl-w represent an intermediate subpopulation in the virus maturation pathway. These findings are consistent with a model suggesting the progressive mode of prM cleavage.”
“The aim of the present study was to clarify what change

detection process leads to the elicitation of the auditory change-sensitive N1ms using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We brought our attention to whether these N1ms would be elicited if physical changes to the stimulus are eliminated. For this purpose, sound movement (SM), which entails a very subtle change only to the manner of stimuli presentation, was used in the present study. SM presentation was achieved by inserting an interaural time difference to one ear. The results indicate that both SM and the onset of the control stimulus (ON) elicited MEG responses at the superior temporal gyrus (STG) of both hemispheres. ON-N1m peak latencies were significantly shorter than those of SM-N1m as well. Interestingly, the pre-event (ON or SM) length (PreEL) was a significant factor determining the amplitude of the STG activity.

Finally, we review recent studies of brain and cognitive training

Finally, we review recent studies of brain and cognitive training procedures. selleck compound Age-related memory problems are real, but there are also grounds for optimism. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

the well-documented influence of genetics on susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases, delineation of the full spectrum of the risk alleles had to await the development of modern next-generation sequencing technologies. The techniques provide unbiased approaches for identification of the DNA sequence variants (DSVs) in the entire genome (whole genome sequencing [WGS]) or the protein-coding exons (whole exome sequencing [WES]). Each genome contains approximately 4 million DSVs and each exome approximately 13,000 single nucleotide variants. The challenge facing researchers and clinicians alike is to decipher the biological and clinical significance of these variants and harness the information for the practice of medicine. The common DSVs typically exert modest effect sizes, as evidenced by the results of genome-wide association studies, and hence have modest or negligible clinical implications. The focus is on the rare variants with large effect sizes, which are expected to have stronger clinical implications, as in single gene disorders

with Mendelian patterns of inheritance. However, the clinical implications of the rare variants for common complex cardiovascular diseases remain to be established. The most important contribution of WES or WGS is in delineation of the novel molecular Blasticidin S mouse pathways involved in the pathogenesis of the Adenosine triphosphate phenotype, which would be expected to provide for preventive and therapeutic opportunities. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 2012;22:219-223) (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Mechanical and biological

prostheses are used to replace damaged heart valves but are associated with significant morbidities. Although there is increased interest in bioengineering cell-seeded heart valve scaffolds, it is a time-consuming and technically difficult process. The goal of this project was to engineer self-seeding heart valves that mature quickly in vivo and have a shorter preparation time.

Methods: Porcine pulmonary valves were decellularized using detergent methods and then either (1) left untreated (unconjugated, n = 6), (2) reseeded with autologous endothelial progenitor cell-derived endothelial cells (cell-seeded, n = 4), or (3) conjugated with CD133 antibodies (conjugated, n = 8). The valve constructs were transplanted into the pulmonary position of sheep using standard surgical techniques. After 1 or 3 months, the implants were removed and assessed for cell and matrix content as well as biomechanical properties.

Results: Endothelial cells expressing von Willebrand factor lined the entire length of both ventricular and arterial surfaces of conjugated valves by 1 month after implantation.

Individuals with co-morbid disorders scored high on both automati

Individuals with co-morbid disorders scored high on both automatic self-associations.

Although remitted individuals showed weaker automatic self-associations than people with a current disorder, their automatic self-anxious/depressed associations were still significantly stronger than those of the control group. Importantly, automatic self-associations showed predictive validity for the severity of anxious and depressive symptoms over and above explicit self-beliefs.

Conclusions. This study represents the first evidence that automatic self-anxious https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html and self-depressive associations are differentially involved in anxiety disorders and depression. This may help to explain the refractoriness of these disorders and points to the potential importance

of automatic self-associations in the development of psychopathological symptoms.”
“We have recently shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (HBcAg) is the major viral factor for HBV clearance using a hydrodynamics-based mouse model. Knockout of HBcAg hampers the development of antiviral immune responses and thus promotes HBV persistence. Here, we further demonstrated that only in the capsid form, but not the free or dimer form, can HBcAg exert its contributory role in HBV clearance. HBcAg is the main structural protein of HBV icosahedral nucleocapsid. A mutant HBV DNA which expresses an assembly-defective HBcAg, HBcAgY132A, surprisingly prolonged HBV surface antigenemia in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice without affecting Metabolism inhibitor viral transcription and translation. This result was not due to a loss of the possible immune epitope caused by the single-amino-acid substitution of HBcAg. Moreover, the particular HBV mutant failed to induce robust humoral and cellular immunity against HBV. These data revealed the requirement of capsid structure for inducing adequate immunity that leads to HBV clearance in mice.”

central nervous system posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PCNS-PTLD) is a rare complication after solid organ transplantation (SOT). With increasing rates of SOT, PCNS-PTLD incidence is increasing.

OBJECTIVE: To Rebamipide describe the characteristics of PCNS-PTLD patients requiring neurosurgical intervention.

METHODS: From 2000 to 2011, 10 patients with prior SOT underwent biopsy for evaluation of brain lesions and were diagnosed with PCNS-PTLD. Data collected included imaging characteristics, pathology, treatments administered, and survival outcomes.

RESULTS: All patients had kidney transplantation, and 3 had concurrent pancreas transplantation. Median age at diagnosis was 49 years, with a median of 4.5 years from SOT to diagnosis (range, 1.8-11.4 years). Presenting symptoms most often included focal neurological deficits (n = 6), although several patients had nonspecific symptoms of headache and altered mental status.


tilt aftereffect is an illusion apparent following ad


tilt aftereffect is an illusion apparent following adaptation to stimuli angled 5 50 from vertical and thought to be affected by lateral inhibition between occipital neurons. A recent study identified an enhanced tilt aftereffect among ecstasy users, but only in a subset that were recently abstinent from amphetamines. The current study examined the effects of ecstasy use, cannabis use and their interacting effect on the magnitude of the tilt aftereffect among Selleckchem PF299 participants with no recent history of amphetamine consumption. Materials and Methods: Eleven ecstasy users, 15 cannabis users, 15 ecstasy plus cannabis users and 15 drug-naive controls were compared on the magnitude of the tilt aftereffect elicited following adaptation to stimuli angled 15, 30, 40 or 60 degrees from vertical. Results: At a 40 degrees adaptation condition, ecstasy users had a greater magnitude of the tilt aftereffect compared to those that had not taken the drug. Additionally, the extent of ecstasy use was positively associated with the magnitude of the tilt aftereffect generated following 15, 30 and 40 degrees adaptation conditions, but not at 60 degrees. Conclusions: Given that lateral inhibition mediates the tilt aftereffect following adaptation to GSK3326595 5-50 degrees, the findings of a relationship between ecstasy use and tilt magnitude at the 15-40 degrees

but not 60 degrees adaptation conditions support a role for serotonin in visual orientation

processing via lateral inhibition. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Objective: Reoperation rates to correct left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after primary Clomifene repair of atrioventricular canal defects remain relatively high. The causes of valvular regurgitation are likely multifactorial, and simple cleft closure is often insufficient to prevent recurrence.

Methods: To elucidate the mechanisms leading to regurgitation, we conducted hemodynamic studies using isolated native mitral valves. Anatomy of these valves was altered to mimic atrioventricular canal type valves and studied under pediatric hemodynamic conditions. The impact of subvalvular geometry, cleft closure, annular dilatation, and annular undersizing on regurgitation were investigated.

Results: Papillary muscle position did not have a significant effect on regurgitation. Cleft closure had a significant impact on valvular competence, with reduction in regurgitation volume with increased cleft closure. Regurgitation volume decreased from 12.5 +/- 2.4 mL/beat for an open cleft to 4.9 +/- 1.9 mL/beat for a partially closed cleft and to 1.4 +/- 1.6 mL/beat when the cleft was completely closed. Annular dilatation had a significant impact on regurgitation even after cleft closure. A 40% increase in annular size increased regurgitation by 59% for a partially closed cleft and by 84% for a fully closed cleft.

The amygdalohippocampal

The amygdalohippocampal learn more area, ventral basal nucleus, the medial paralaminar nucleus, and its confluence with the CTA are the main targets of this projection. Immature neurons are prominent in the PL and CTA, and are overlapped by anterogradely labeled fibers from CA1′, particularly in the medial PL and CTA. Hippocampal inputs to the amygdala

are more focused in higher primates compared to rodents, supporting previous anatomic studies and recent data from human functional imaging studies of contextual fear. At the cellular level, a hippocampal interaction with immature neurons in the amygdala suggests a novel substrate for cellular plasticity, with implications for mechanisms underlying

contextual learning and emotional memory processes. (c) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“One of the central aims of cancer research is to identify and characterize cancer-causing alterations in cancer genomes. In recent years, unprecedented advances in genome-wide sequencing, functional genomics technologies for RNA interference screens and methods for evaluating three-dimensional chromatin organization in vivo have resulted in important discoveries regarding human cancer. The cancer-causing genes identified from these new genome-wide technologies have also selleck compound provided opportunities for effective and personalized cancer therapy. In this review, we describe some of the most recent technologies for cancer gene discovery. We also provide specific examples much in which these technologies have proven remarkably successful in uncovering important cancer-causing alterations.”
“I present a personal view of the beginning of two-dimensional gels and unsanctioned proteomics. I was still a young graduate student in the early 1970s when I developed methods for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis that became widely used. Though the method gave us the capacity to

do things that had never been done, the value of global enumeration of proteins was not appreciated, and we were still two decades away from the invention of the term proteomics. I describe a period of exploration where, by exercising our new capability we conducted the first proteomic type expression experiments, and made unforeseen contributions to advances in biology. Detection of single-amino acid substitutions validated genetic selections in cultured cells, and revealed a regulatory system that maintains the accuracy of protein synthesis by assuring an unbiased supply of its substrates. We documented biologic control with a dynamic range >10(8) fold, and, in a surprising turn, we identified an approach that provided a major breakthrough in recombinant DNA technology, the ability to express cloned sequences in Escherichia coli.

We suggest a new modeling technique for travelers movement, in wh

We suggest a new modeling technique for travelers movement, in which the movement does not affect the demographic parameters characterizing the metapopulation. A solution to the deterministic reaction-diffusion equations that emerges from this model on a general network is presented. A typical example of a heterogenous network, the star structure, is studied in detail both analytically and using

agent-based simulations. The interplay between demographic stochasticity, spatial heterogeneity and the infection dynamics is shown to produce some counter-intuitive effects. In particular it was found that, while movement always increases the chance of an outbreak, it may decrease the steady-state fraction of sick individuals. Dactolisib molecular weight The importance of the modeling technique in estimating the outcomes of a vaccination campaign is demonstrated. LOXO-101 supplier (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The adaptation of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) provides an experimental model for motor learning. Two studies, using cats and mice, respectively, have recently suggested pharmacologically that the

memory of adaptation is located multiply in the cerebellum and brainstem. Here, we examined the effects of acute cerebellar flocculus shutdown on the adaptation in four monkeys. Two hours of 0.11 Hz-10 degrees turntable oscillation while viewing a stationary checked-patterned screen through the left-right reversing prism decreased the HVOR gains by 0.16, and 3 days of prism wearing combined with 2 h of daily turntable oscillation decreased the HVOR gains by 0.27. Injections of lidocaine into bilateral flocculi did not affect the nonadapted HVOR gains, but depressed the visual suppression Adenosine triphosphate of the HVOR. They recovered the HVOR gains

decreased by 2 h of training, but very little affected the HVOR gains decreased by previous 2 days of training. Injections of control Ringer’s solution did not affect the gains adapted by 2 h or 3 days of training. These results are consistent with the previous studies, and suggest that the memory trace of adaptation of the HVOR initially resides in the flocculus but later resides, presumably, in the vestibular nuclei in the monkey. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Retrotransposons occur in extremely large numbers in many eukaryotic genomes. However, little is known of the factors which affect the distribution of close proximity elements. In this work we investigate the frequency of close facing retrotransposons in a plant species with extremely high numbers of retrotransposons. Molecular observations are compared with predictions of a mathematical model that assumes a uniform probability of retrotransposon insertion into the genome. The mathematical model plays the role of a null hypothesis.

This value corresponds to 31 emerged hatchlings The novel model

This value corresponds to 31 emerged hatchlings. The novel model is a suitable framework to predict the temperature and metabolic heat within the nest. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Several linkage analyses implicated the chromosome 9q22 region in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disease with remarkable persistence into adulthood. This locus contains the brain-expressed GTP-binding RAS-like 2 gene (DIRAS2) thought https://www.selleckchem.com/products/sotrastaurin-aeb071.html to regulate neurogenesis. As DIRAS2 is a positional and functional ADHD candidate gene, we conducted an association study

in 600 patients suffering from adult ADHD (aADHD) and 420 controls. Replication samples consisted of 1035 aADHD patients PF-01367338 mouse and 1381 controls, as well as 166 families with a child affected from childhood ADHD. Given the high degree of co-morbidity with ADHD, we also investigated patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) (n = 336) or personality disorders (PDs) (n = 622). Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the structural gene and

the transcriptional control region of DIRAS2 were analyzed. Four SNPs and two haplotype blocks showed evidence of association with ADHD, with nominal p-values ranging from p = 0.006 to p = 0.05. In the adult replication samples, we obtained a consistent effect of rs1412005 and of a risk haplotype containing the promoter region (p = 0.026). Meta-analysis resulted in a significant common OR of 1.12 (p = 0.04) for rs1412005 and confirmed association with the promoter risk haplotype (OR = 1.45, p = 0.0003). Subsequent analysis in nuclear families with childhood ADHD again showed an association of the promoter haplotype block (p = 0.02). rs1412005 also increased risk toward BD (p = 0.026) and cluster B PD (p = 0.031). Additional SNPs showed association with personality scores (p = 0.008-0.048). Converging lines of evidence implicate genetic variance in the promoter region of DIRAS2 in the etiology of ADHD and co-morbid impulsive disorders. CYTH4 Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 2318-2327; doi:10.1038/npp.2011.120; published online 13 July 2011″
“The aim of this study was to clarify the significance

of HSP70 and sHSP for thermotolerance in freshwater amphipods. We compared four amphipod species from different freshwater habitats and biogeographical regions (Central Europe vs. Lake Baikal). Test individuals were exposed to thermal stress generated by a water temperature of 25 degrees C The thermotolerance of the species, determined by median lethal time (LT50), followed in decreasing order by Gmelinoides fasciatus, Echinogammarus berilloni, Gammarus pulex, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus. HSP70 and sHSP base level concentrations for the species were determined at control (i.e. non-stress) conditions. For HSP70, the base levels were positively correlated to the species’ thermotolerances. For sHSP, however, only thermotolerant G. fasciatus showed a high level.