Nowadays communication technologies and developments in the precision agriculture applications field allow researchers to measure soil properties instantaneously type 2 diabetes and dynamically . Much of the research in the scientific literature indicates the importance of the determination of the soil resistance levels instantaneously and mapping of the soil properties. To achieve this, there is a focus on the design of horizontal penetrometers, which can make instantaneous measurements, using GPS systems, and field mapping operations. The publications also indicate that the usage of instantaneous measurement techniques, equipment, GPS systems and soil maps of the soil properties have an important role on raising of the yield and allowing faster and easier field processes [7,13�C18].
In this study, a system was designed to determine the soil resistance level instantaneously and assist with field mapping. As a new product, a horizontal penetrometer Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries with a cone, which has an integrated load cell, was designed using the SolidWorks 3D parametric solid modelling Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries design software. In the system, a data acquisition system based on GPS was utilised and special software which can transfer the files in desired formats to GIS mapping programs was developed for field mapping operations. In the field experiments, the system was operated with a tractor. All data from the penetrometer and the GPS were collected in a notebook in the operation and the related results and maps are presented.2.?Materials and Methods2.1. Design of the SystemThe main aim of the designed system is to measure the horizontal soil resistance and map it.
The system involves three main components (Figure 1):Mechanical Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries system: It is attached to tractor with three point mounted implements and it moves horizontally in the soil. The load cell is attached to the system to measure soil penetration resistance instantaneously.Data acquisition system: The system is used to collect and process the data from a GPS receiver Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and the load cell on the mechanical system for mapping operations.Software: The software is prepared to process the data and convert it to a desired file format for GIS (Geographical Information Systems) programs.Figure 1.Structure of the designed system.2.1.1. Mechanical SystemThe mechanical system is shown in Figure 2. The tine of the horizontal penetrometer was made of steel.
The load cell bed was formed into the steel tine. The load cell was placed in this section and the top was covered. This prevents possible damage to the load cells under the soil. The data cables of the load cells were transported to the data collection unit Cilengitide by being passed through the metal tubes placed behind the penetrometer��s tine. Afterwards, into the hole, a conical-shaped tip of 30�� was placed and fixed to the selleck bio load cell. The surface of the designed conical-shaped tip is 706.5 mm2.