The authors describe the use of a sensate medial plantar flap for

The authors describe the use of a sensate medial plantar flap for heel reconstruction in three patients and document the long-term retention of sensation compared with the contralateral uninjured heel and corresponding donor site.\n\nMethods: A medial plantar flap was harvested to include the branch of the medial plantar nerve to the instep to preserve innervation. Sharp pain, light and deep pressure, vibration, cold temperature, and static and dynamic two-point discrimination were examined between 6 months and 1 year after surgery.\n\nResults: Sharp pain, vibration,

and deep pressure sensation MAPK inhibitor were present equally in the medial plantar flap, contralateral heel, and contralateral instep. Cold perception, light pressure, and static two-point and dynamic two-point discrimination were significantly less in the normal contralateral heel when compared with

the heel reconstructed by the Vorinostat manufacturer innervated flap. There were no significant differences in sensation between the medial plantar flap and the contralateral instep.\n\nConclusions: The medial plantar flap is capable of providing durable, sensate coverage of plantar hindfoot defects with minimal donor-site morbidity. Furthermore, that sensation remains identical to that of the instep donor site and superior to that of the normal heel pad. (Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 127: 723, 2011.)”
“AIM: To compare the histological upgrade check details rate of ultrasound (US)-guided vacuum-assisted removal (VAR) and US-14 G-automated core needle biopsy (ACNB) in the diagnosis of papillary breast lesions. MATERIALS AND\n\nMETHODS: Two hundred and seventy-one biopsies of 230 papillary lesions were examined, which underwent subsequent surgical excision or long-term follow-up after US-ACNB (n = 206) or US-VAR (n = 65). The false-negative and atypical papilloma underestimation rate were compared between the ACNB and VAR groups. Patient and lesion characteristics were collected. The histological

upgrade rates of the diagnosis were estimated and compared.\n\nRESULTS: Out of 271 papillary lesions, 195 (80.0%) were benign, 21(7.7%) were atypical, and 55 (20.3%) were malignant. There were no false negatives or underestimated atypical papillomas in the VAR group. However, in the ACNB group, the false-negative rate was 7.6% (12 of 157 benign papillomas, 95% CI; 4.4-12.9%, p = 0.039) and the atypical papilloma underestimation rate was 33% (five of 15 atypical papillomas, 95% CI; 15.2-58.3%, p = 0.135). The histological upgrade rates of the diagnosis for papillary breast lesions were 0% for the VAR (0 of 66) group and 10.2% for the ACNB (21 of 206) group before adjusting for the population (p = 0.003).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: ACNB was associated with significantly higher false-negative and histological upgrade rates of diagnosis for papillary breast lesions than VAR.

Sodium citrate, formulated as a hypertonic solution, gently and e

Sodium citrate, formulated as a hypertonic solution, gently and efficiently detaches adherent cultures of hPSCs as small multicellular aggregates with minimal manual intervention. These multicellular aggregates are easily and reproducibly recovered in calcium-containing medium, retain a high post-detachment cell viability of 97%+/- 61% and readily attach to fresh substrates. Together, this significantly reduces the time required to expand hPSCs as high quality adherent cultures. Cells subcultured for 25 passages using this novel sodium citrate passaging solution exhibit characteristic hPSC morphology, high levels (>80%) of pluripotency markers OCT4, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60

andTRA-1-81, a normal learn more G-banded karyotype and the ability to differentiate into cells representing all three germ layers, both in vivo and in vitro.”
“Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy

on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.\n\nA total of 909,875 Danish women 50-79 years old without previous hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy were followed in this nationwide cohort study 1995-2005. The National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics provided exposure information on all women who redeemed prescriptions on hormone therapy. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on borderline ovarian tumors. Information on confounding 4SC-202 factors PF-00299804 chemical structure was available from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses provided risk estimates with hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates.\n\nIn an average of 8.0 years of follow-up,

703 incident ovarian borderline tumors were detected. Compared with never users, hormone use for more than 4 years increased the risk of borderline tumors: relative risk (RR) 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.81. Combined estrogen and progestin therapy for more than 4 years increased the risk: RR 1.49 (1.10-2.01), with no difference between cyclic and continuous combined therapy (p = 0.83); RR 1.56 (1.08-2.25) and 1.45 (0.87-2.43), respectively. The RR with estrogen therapy did not differ significantly from RR with combined therapy (p = 0.58): RR 1.27 (0.82-1.98). Disregarding the type of hormone therapy, hormone use for 4 years or less did not increase the risk of borderline tumors.\n\nCombined hormone therapy for more than 4 years increases the risk of ovarian borderline tumors.”
“Objective: To determine the factors affecting utilization of ITN by pregnant women in Etsako West LGA, Edo State.\n\nMethodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed. Using a systematic sampling method, a total of 385 respondents were selected from all ANC facilities in the LGA following a verbally obtained consent. Tool for data collection was a semi-structured, researcher administered questionnaire.

(C) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Maternal nest-

(C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Maternal nest-site choice is a behavioral phenotype with transgenerational consequences that can appear at multiple stages of offspring ontogeny. In many reptiles, the microenvironment surrounding eggs (e.g., moisture) can affect multiple aspects of offspring fitness across selleck inhibitor several life stages (e.g., embryo survival, phenotypic development, and posthatching survival). Thus, natural selection should favor maternal nesting behaviors that positively affect both embryonic

and postembryonic ontogenetic trajectories. We tested this hypothesis in a 2-part laboratory experiment using the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei). In the first experiment; gravid lizards were given a choice of nesting substrates containing 5 levels of moisture content. By incubating eggs at the same 5 moisture levels, our second experiment tested if maternal choice of nest substrate facilitates embryonic development and enhances offspring quality and viability. Females strongly preferred nesting

substrates with high moisture content, and these conditions yielded high hatching success, large offspring size, and overall increased offspring survival. These results suggest that selection has adaptively matched maternal nesting behaviors, embryonic development, and posthatching phenotypes in ways that enhance both offspring and parental fitness. In addition, our results highlight the importance of incorporating multiple life-history stages when assessing the fitness consequences of transgenerational effects.”
“Clustered selleck products regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a recently discovered see more adaptive prokaryotic immune system that provides acquired immunity against foreign nucleic acids by utilizing small guide crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) to interfere with invading viruses and plasmids. In Escherichia coli, Cas3 is essential for crRNA-guided interference with virus proliferation. Cas3 contains N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase and C-terminal Superfamily 2 (SF2) helicase domains. Here, we provide the first report of the cloning, expression, purification and in vitro functional analysis

of the Cas3 protein of the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR4 (Ecoli subtype) system. Cas3 possesses a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-stimulated ATPase activity, which is coupled to unwinding of DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA duplexes. Cas3 also shows ATP-independent nuclease activity located in the HD domain with a preference for ssDNA substrates. To dissect the contribution of individual domains, Cas3 separation-of-function mutants (ATPase(+)/nuclease(-) and ATPase(-)/nuclease(+)) were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. We propose that the Cas3 ATPase/helicase domain acts as a motor protein, which assists delivery of the nuclease activity to Cascade-crRNA complex targeting foreign DNA. The EMBO Journal (2011) 30, 1335-1342. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2011.


Neural Network (ANN) and expert-system met


Neural Network (ANN) and expert-system methods may have reached peak efficiency. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technology focuses on outliers rather than centroids of spike and nonspike data clusters and should improve AESD efficiency. An exemplary spike/nonspike database is suggested as a tool for assessing parameters and methods for AESD and is available in CSV or Matlab formats from the author at [email protected]. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is presented as a graphic method for finding better spike parameters and for the step-wise evaluation of the spike detection process.”
“An investigation of perinatal mortality in sheep and goats in nine governorates of Jordan was conducted from May to September 2001. Information from farmers was recorded on questionnaires at the time C59 wnt of farm visits. A total of 305 sheep breeders and 126 goat breeders were interviewed. Perinatal mortality in goats (13%) was almost double that in sheep (7.5%). The majority of abortions occurred in November, December and January and perinatal mortality varied between governorates. The overall kidding rate was higher than lambing rate, probably due to genetic factors. The barren rate in sheep

was comparable to that in goats. Neonatal lamb losses were 4.5%, whereas neonatal kid mortality was 8.5%. It appeared that the Jordanian farmers were aware Selleckchem A 1155463 of some of the important causes of perinatal mortality but they did not know how to prevent them.”
“Background and PurposeAngiotensin II (AngII) and IL-1 are involved in cardiovascular diseases through the induction of inflammatory pathways. HuR is an adenylate- and uridylate-rich element (ARE)-binding protein involved in the mRNA stabilization of many genes. This study investigated the contribution of HuR to the increased expression of COX-2 induced by AngII and IL-1 and its consequences on VSMC migration and remodelling. Experimental ApproachRat and human VSMCs were stimulated with AngII (0.1M) and/or IL-1 (10ngmL(-1)). Mice were infused with AngII or subjected to carotid artery ligation. Stem Cell Compound Library mRNA

and protein levels were assayed by quantitative PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Cell migration was measured by wound healing and transwell assays. Key ResultsIn VSMCs, AngII potentiated COX-2 and tenascin-C expressions and cell migration induced by IL-1. This effect of AngII on IL-1-induced COX-2 expression was accompanied by increased COX-2 3 untranslated region reporter activity and mRNA stability, mediated through cytoplasmic HuR translocation and COX-2 mRNA binding. These effects were blocked by ERK1/2 and HuR inhibitors. VSMC migration was reduced by blockade of ERK1/2, HuR, COX-2, TXAS, TP and EP receptors. HuR, COX-2, mPGES-1 and TXAS expressions were increased in AngII-infused mouse aortas and in carotid-ligated arteries. AngII-induced tenascin-C expression and vascular remodelling were abolished by celecoxib and by mPGES-1 deletion.

The overall number of nodes removed, the likelihood of node posit

The overall number of nodes removed, the likelihood of node positivity, and the types and rates of complications of PLND are similar to pure laparoscopic and open retropubic procedures. (C) 2013 European Association of Urology. Published

by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Most coevolving relationships between pairs of species are embedded in a broader multispecific interaction network. The mutualistic interaction between Lithophragma 17DMAG purchase parviflorum (Saxifragaceae) and its pollinating floral parasite Greya politella (Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) occurs in some communities as a pairwise set apart from most other interactions in those communities. In other communities, however, this pair of species occurs with congeners and with other floral visitors to Lithophragma.

We analyzed local and geographic differences in the network formed by interactions between Lithophragma plants and Greya moths in communities containing two Lithophragma species, two Greya species, and floral visitors other than Greya that visit Lithophragma flowers. Our goal was to evaluate if non-Greya visitors Mizoribine mw were common, if visitor assembly differs between Lithophragma species and populations and if these visitors act as effective pollinators. Sympatric populations of L. heterophyllum and L. parviflorum differ in floral traits that may affect assemblies of floral visitors. Visitation rates by non-Greya floral visitors were low, and the asymptotic number of visitor species was less than 20 species in all populations. Lithophragma species shared some of the visitors, with visitor assemblages differing between sites more for L. heterophyllum than for L. parviflorum. Pollination efficacy experiments showed that most visitors were poor pollinators. Single visits to flowers by this assemblage of species resulted in significantly higher seed CT99021 research buy set in Lithophragma heterophyllum (30.6 +/- A 3.9 SE) than in L. parviflorum (4.7 +/- A 3.4 SE). This difference was consistent between sites, suggesting that

these visitors provide a better fit to the floral morphology of L. heterophyllum. Overall, none of the non-Greya visitors appears to be either sufficiently common or efficient as a pollinator to impose strong selection on any of these four Lithophragma populations in comparison with Greya, which occurs within almost all populations of these species throughout their geographic ranges.”
“Two novel polymers (PFMA-Ma and PFMA-Mb) were synthesized through an efficient and simple method combining conventional free radical polymerization and a Diels-Alder reaction. Different molar percentage compositions of the functionalized pendants in the polymers and two different steric configurations: endo and exo in the D-A adduct structures are revealed in H-1 NMR spectra. In addition, DSC curves demonstrate that the reverse Diels-Alder reactions take place at higher temperatures (between 120 degrees C and 150 degrees C).

Conclusions: Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not

Conclusions: Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies Entinostat solubility dmso applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment.”
“Understanding the flow alteration in side branches during

flow diversion treatment of cerebral aneurysms is important to prevent ischemic complications and improve device designs. Flow diverters were placed in the aorta of four rabbits crossing the origin of side arteries. Subject-specific computational models were constructed from 3D angiographies

and Doppler ultrasounds (DUSs). Flow simulations were run before and after virtually deploying the flow diverters, assuming distal resistances remained unchanged after treatment. All jailed arteries remained patent angiographically 8weeks after treatment. The computational models estimated decreases compared to pretreatment in the mean flow rates between 2% and 20% and in peak flow rates between 5% and 36%. The major changes were observed during systole. Flow patterns did not exhibit recirculation zones before treatment. Implantation of the flow diverters altered the flow structure only locally DNA Damage inhibitor near the device wires. No major recirculation regions were created or destroyed. Flow diverters seem safe with respect to perforator or side branch occlusion. Relatively small changes in flow rates through jailed arteries are expected, even for moderate to large degrees of coverage Selleck Elafibranor of their origins. These results seem consistent with previous clinical experiences where no or very few complications related to perforator occlusion have been reported.Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation of aortic

valve weight to transvalvular gradient and area, with special regard to valve anatomy, size of calcific deposits, gender, and body size. Two hundred forty-two surgically excised stenotic aortic valves of patients (139 men, mean age 72 9 years) who had undergone preoperative cardiac catheterization and echocardiography were weighed and examined with respect to number of cusps (tricuspid vs bicuspid), size of calcium deposits (microaggregates vs nodular macroaggregates), and presence of cholesterol clefts. The relation among valve weight, gradient, and area was studied. Transvalvular gradient was independent of gender or valve anatomy and was linearly correlated with valve weight absolutely (r = 0.33, p < 0.01) or normalized by body surface area (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). No correlation was evident between valve area and weight.

Their response to maturation stimuli is weak in the absence of IL

Their response to maturation stimuli is weak in the absence of IL-4 but these cells retain the ability to differentiate into fully functional mature dendritic cells upon IL-4 treatment. We suggest that these cells may provide a useful model to investigate tolerogenic function as a developmental feature of

DC and to understand molecular events involved in IL-4 priming for maturation. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The amyloid-beta protein (A beta)-containing neuritic plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles are two invariable characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Three genes encoding amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP), presenilin MLN8237 (PS) 1 and 2 are linked to early onset familial AD, and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon 4 allele is a major risk factor for sporadic AD. The zebrafish A beta PP, PS, and ApoE genes have been identified, and the essential components of the gamma-secretase complex

that mediates cleavage of A beta PP to generate A beta have been examined in zebrafish. A RepSox transgenic zebrafish expressing mutant tau has been created, and the transgenic animals exhibit a neurodegeneraton phenotype The use of zebrafish as a model system for AD research has expanded our knowledge of A beta and tau.”
“Toxins are potent molecules used by various bacteria to interact with a host organism. Some of them specifically act on neuronal cells (clostridial neurotoxins) leading to characteristics neurological affections. But many other toxins are multifunctional and recognize a wider range of cell types including neuronal cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, for example by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, in amplification of the diarrhea, or in intestinal inflammation process. Other toxins can pass the blood brain barrier

and directly act on specific neurons.”
“Serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels built by five subunits GSI-IX concentration of diverse composition. In humans, five subunits exist (5-HT3A-E) which are encoded by the genes HTR3A-E and are expressed in various isoforms. Recently, the importance of factors influencing receptor expression became clear, such as chaperones and microRNAs.Owing to their expression profile and physiological functions, 5-HT3 receptors have been implicated in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, HTR3 variants have now been shown to be associated with these conditions. This underlines the potential of 5-HT3 receptors as therapeutic targets and may enable personalised therapies in the future.

5) years There appeared to be left-sided predominance of desmoid

5) years. There appeared to be left-sided predominance of desmoid tumors in the pediatric mandible with a ratio of 3:1. The mean size of the turners was 4.6 cm (SD +/- 2.1) at the largest diameter. We have tabulated ABT-737 in vivo the relevant data of all the cases including the methods of treatment and recurrence. It is found that when compared with conservative management, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and curettage or surgical local excisions as treatment options the most efficient treatment was partial mandiblectomy,

which resulted ill complete tumor dissipation with no turner recurrence. In summary, this is the largest review of the pediatric desmoid tumor of the mandible to date where we provide for the first time all algorithm for the management and treatment of the pediatric desmoid turner of the mandible.”
“Coastal Apoptosis Compound Library supplier ocean upwelling ecosystems generally represent the most productive large marine ecosystems of the world’s oceans, in terms of both

primary production rates and tonnages of exploitable fish produced. The Peruvian upwelling system, in particular, stands out as a major factor in world fish production. The Pacific trade winds have traditionally been considered to be the primary driving force for the upwelling system off Peru, but are projected to weaken as climate change proceeds. This leads to concern that the upwelling process in the Peru system, to which its productivity is linked, may likewise weaken. However, other mechanisms

involving greenhouse-associated intensification of thermal low-pressure cells over the coastal landmasses of upwelling regions selleck suggest general intensification of wind-driven ocean upwelling in coastal upwelling regions of the world’s oceans. But although certain empirical results have supported this expectation, it has not been consistently corroborated in climate model simulations, possibly because the scale of the coastal intensification may be small relative to the scales that are appropriately reflected in the standard models. Here we summarize available evidence for the intensification mechanism and present a proxy test that uses variations in water vapor, the dominant natural greenhouse gas, to offer multiple-realization empirical evidence for action of the proposed mechanism in the real world situation. While many potential consequences to the future of marine ecosystems would codepend on climate change-related changes in the thermocline and nutricline structures, an important subset, involving potential increased propensities for hypoxia, noxious gas eruptions, toxic red tide blooms, and/or jellyfish outbreaks, may depend more directly on changes in the upwelling-favorable wind itself. A prospective role of fisheries in either mitigating or reinforcing this particular class of effects is suggested.

In this review, we summarize

In this review, we summarize PP2 ic50 the synthesis and structural analysis of dehydroaltenusin and its derivatives. We also focus on the structure-activity relationships of dehydroaltenusin as a mammalian pol alpha inhibitor. Dehydroaltenusin specifically inhibits mammalian pol alpha, an enzyme that plays an important role in DNA replication and cell division. The human genome encodes 14 pols that control cellular DNA synthesis, and synthetic dehydroaltenusin derivatives, which are specific inhibitors of mammalian pol alpha,

are useful tools and molecular probes for distinguishing pols and for clarifying their biological and in vivo functions. Moreover, these compounds might be potentially useful as anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs for in vivo studies.”
“The diagnosis model of the cucumber diseases and insect pests was established by laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) spectroscopy technology combined with Back Propagation Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN) algorithm in this research. This model would be used to realize the fast and exact diagnosis of the cucumber

diseases and insect pests. Four kinds of in-vivo cucumber leaves Selleckchem Panobinostat (health, downy mildew, aphid, downy mildew and aphid) were used in this experiment, and detected the physiological information and chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum by the corresponding experimental apparatus and chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum collection system. The two hundred and nineteen samples were randomly separated into the calibration set and selleck products the validation set. Principal

component analysis (PCA) was a method which had been widely used in the spectroscopic analysis for reducing the dimensionality of the noise reduction spectrum, and according to the model accuracy seven principal components (PCs) were selected to replace the complex spectral data. The noise of original spectrum was reduced by five methods, which include Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), First-order Differential Treatment (FDT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Standard Normal Variate (SNV) and Wavelet Analysis (WA). According to the best diagnosis accuracy of calibration and prediction set, optimization results with every pretreatment method in different spectrum band were compared. Results showed that BP-ANN with input by the first seven principal components of full-band spectrum had the best identification capabilities and accuracy was 100% after the original spectrum noise was reduced by FDT. This research indicated that the method of BP-ANN had a good identification effect and could realize rapid diagnosis of the cucumber diseases and insect pests as a new method.”
“Objective\n\nTo investigate whether there is a difference in occurrence of electrocardiogram changes suggestive of myocardial ischaemia between two different doses of oxytocin.\n\nDesign\n\nDouble-blind randomised controlled trial\n\nSetting\n\nUniversity hospital in Sweden.

Thereby two aspects are neglected, the income effects on micro le

Thereby two aspects are neglected, the income effects on micro level, and the integration Nepicastat purchase of traditional firewood production systems for comparison. To fill this gap, an Environmentally Extended Social Accounting Matrix (ESAM) at the village level is developed and applied to a rural village in Tanzania. The objective is first to explore the integration of agroforestry systems in rural smallholder systems and second to analyze income effects of agricultural biomass production for bioenergy

purposes in comparison to firewood production. In order to distinguish the use of firewood from public and private tree resources, environmental accounts for changes in tree stocks (public and private) are included. Findings indicate the importance of including common firewood production as a reference point The highest income effect for the poorest households derives from agroforestiy, which households

use as a source of firewood and fruits for sale or home consumption, followed by J. curcas, sugarcane and finally cassava. Agroforestry in general has been also found to substantially release the pressure on public forest reserves. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The long gonadotrophin releasing-hormone agonists (GnRH-a) protocol of pituitary down regulation was widely used in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Some clinicians prefer to use one cycle of oral contraceptives (OC) pretreatment

before the traditional long GnRH-a protocol. This study was aimed to investigate whether such pretreatment could reduce the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) for patients with different ovarian responses in IVF/ICSI treatment. Participants undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment with long GnRH-a protocol of pituitary down regulation in luteal phase were recruited by their potential risk of OHSS into one group of see more suspected high responders (227 participants) and the other group of suspected normal responders (665 participants). As for the suspected high responders, pretreatment with OC could lower the serum LH level, LH/FSH ratio and E-2 level right after 14 days of pituitary down regulation. It could also lower the serum E-2 level before oocytes retrieval and the count of oocytes collected. The incidence of severe OHSS was also significantly decreased. Such effect of OC on hormone profile, follicular dynamics and incidence of OHSS was not discovered in the group of suspected normal responders.”
“OBJECTIVE. A few studies have reported on short-term outcomes of patients receiving imaging-guided injections into the foot articulations, but none have compared patient responses depending on the anatomic site injected. This study includes a large sample size facilitating the investigation of postinjection pain reduction overall and by specific articulation.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS.