Thus, changing our overall diet pattern might be most beneficial to those with the greatest psychosocial stress, who have the least healthful diet, and are least able to afford dietary supplements. This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health, RO1HL087103 [to CAS]. We would like to thank Vasiliki Michopoulos and Mark Wilson for sharing their cortisol data. “
“Stress is an important risk factor for many neuropsychiatric
disorders. However, most individuals Apoptosis Compound Library who are exposed to a stressor do not go on to develop a clinical disorder. Mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability to the harmful consequences of chronic stress have received increasing attention and are thought to involve a complex interaction between multiple genetic, environmental, and psychosocial factors (Feder et al., 2009, McEwen, 2012 and Zhu et al., 2014). In vulnerable individuals, these factors converge to trigger pathophysiological processes that may
lead to psychiatric symptoms. Increasingly, neuroimaging studies indicate that changes in functional connectivity across neuroanatomically distributed brain networks are an important element of that pathophysiology. Abnormal patterns of corticocortical connectivity are a common feature of depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other stress-related neuropsychiatric conditions (Anand et al., 2005, Etkin and Wager, 2007, Greicius et al., 2007, selleck chemicals llc Milad et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Liberzon and Sripada, 2008, Monk et al., 2008 and Broyd et al., 2009). Functional connectivity changes, in turn, have been linked to specific symptoms and to recovery during treatment (Etkin
et al., 2009, Fox et al., 2012, Liston et al., 2014 and Salomons et al., 2014) How chronic stress leads to pathological patterns of functional connectivity in vulnerable individuals is not fully understood. The underlying mechanisms are complex and multifactorial, involving dynamic changes in glutamatergic signaling and synaptic strength; direct effects on neurotrophins and cell adhesion molecules; and interactions aminophylline with noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neuromodulators (Sandi, 2004, Duman and Monteggia, 2006, Arnsten, 2009 and Popoli et al., 2012). In clinical populations, in particular, it is likely that no single mechanism can account for stress-related changes in functional connectivity, which emerge from complex interactions with genetic and neurodevelopmental factors that influence risk and resilience (Duman et al., 1997, De Kloet et al., 2005a and Lupien et al., 2009). Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of just one of these mechanisms: how glucocorticoid stress hormones affect dendritic remodeling and postsynaptic dendritic spine plasticity in susceptible brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala (Leuner and Shors, 2013).