From these assessments it can be

assumed that the structu

From these assessments it can be

assumed that the structures are reliable. The study sorted only two qualified protein homology models out of the total five proteins due to the lack of high similarity template sequence alignments. SWISS-MODEL server was fast to use and helped in modeling 2 reliable proteins with stereo chemical properties. It can be assumed from the ERRAT and RAMPAGE scores of the structures that the homology structures of prohibitin 2 and CDGSH iron–sulfur domain-containing protein 2 of S. tropicalis were satisfactorily reliable and may be beneficial in further studies on different aspects of biological studies. All authors have none to declare. “
“Glibenclamide is an oral Antidiabetic agent which is widely used in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type II). Glibenclamide is a second generation sulphonyl urea which is more potent than PFI-2 ic50 the first generation drugs in this class. Glibenclamide posses marked insulinaemic find more action and may work when other diabetic agents fails. It does not cross placenta and have been safely used in pregnancy i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) without any adverse effect to the foetus. Its biological half life is 4–6 h. Due to its low biological half life (5 h), it requires frequent administration. In order

to reduce the dosing frequency and to improve patient compliance, controlled/sustained release dosage forms are required. In the present investigation, Edoxaban an attempt

has been made to formulate controlled/sustained release Glibenclamide microparticles by using Cellulose Acetate as rate retardant polymer. Glibenclamide was obtained as gift sample from Medley Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Daman Unit, Andheri East, Mumbai, India. Cellulose Acetate (Natco Pharma; Hyderabad, India), Acetone, liquid paraffin, tween 80, span 80 (Loba chemie Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai, India) and the chemical reagents used were of analytical grade. The microparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation technique.5 Glibenclamide microparticles were formulated by varying the drug and polymer ratios and by varying the surfactants. Weighed amount of drug and polymer were dissolved in 10 ml of acetone. The organic solution was then slowly added to 100 ml of liquid paraffin containing 1% surfactant with constant stirring for 1 h. The resulting microparticles were separated by filtration and washed with petroleum ether. The microparticles finally air dried over a period of 12 h and stored in a dessicator. The pure drug and optimized formulations were subjected for FTIR analysis. The samples were scanned over a range of 4000–400 cm−1 using Fourier transformer infrared spectrophotometer.6 Spectra’s were analyzed for drug polymer interactions. The pure drug and optimized formulation were subjected to differential scanning calorimeter equipped with an intra cooler (NETZSCH, Japan.). Indium/zinc standards were used to calibrate the DSC temperature and enthalpy scale.

Our recent study demonstrated that 64Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 P

Our recent study demonstrated that 64Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 PET enables clear visualization of tumor angiogenesis and aids in monitoring the effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy in a mouse model [9]. Subsequently, we plan to investigate the therapeutic potential of this compound for internal radiation cancer therapy, also known as peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy (PRRT) [10].

It is important to note that 64Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4-based PRRT would be used in diverse solid tumor types because it targets not only αVβ3-positive tumor cells but also αVβ3-overexpressed neoendothelial cells during angiogenesis, a key event required for tumor Kinase Inhibitor Library nmr growth. However, 64Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 was predominantly excreted through the kidneys, with more than half of the injected radioactivity eliminated within 1 h after injection and a significant amount of radioactivity being retained in the kidneys in an αVβ3-nonspecific manner even 24 h after injection [6]. Because the kidney is the principal dose-limiting organ in internal radiotherapy with radiolabeled peptides [11], reducing the renal accumulation of 64Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 is an essential step before examining

its treatment potential. In general, peptides are filtered through the glomerulus and are subsequently reabsorbed by the proximal tubular cells [11]. Infusion of the amino acids lysine and arginine has been reported to reduce renal tubular reabsorption of the radiolabeled somatostatin analogs pentetreotide or octreotide in animals and humans [12], [13] and [14]. It was hypothesized that the positively charged NVP-BGJ398 concentration lysine or arginine may competitively block the binding between a peptide containing positively charged groups and a negatively charged site on the tubular cell surface. ADAMTS5 Infusion of 25 g each of l-lysine (Lys) and l-arginine, which was found to be both effective and safe, is used as a standard procedure for kidney protection during PRRT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs [15]. Gelofusine

(GF), a succinylated gelatin solution, is a widely used plasma expander for patients suffering from massive hemorrhage, severe trauma, or dehydration. ten Dam et al. reported that infusions of low doses of GF in healthy male subjects resulted in urinary excretion of low-molecular-weight protein β2-microglobulin, suggesting that such an effect was most likely due to competitive inhibition of tubular protein reabsorption [16]. van Eerd et al. and Vegt et al. hypothesized that specific components in GF may attenuate the tubular reabsorption process. Subsequent studies on rats and mice showed that GF significantly reduced the renal uptake of 111In-octreotide as effectively as lysine did [17], and studies on healthy volunteers showed that relatively small amounts of GF (<420 mL) could effectively reduce the renal uptake of 111In-octreotide [18]. Regarding RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4, Briat et al.

The typical analysis that goes along with these stimuli is shown

The typical analysis that goes along with these stimuli is shown in Fig. 4 where a spike-triggered average (STA) is created by taking selleck kinase inhibitor the mean of the instantaneous frames present at each observed spike. When the stimuli are spectrally white, and the STA is generalized to taking the average for multiple frame delays prior to each spike, the computation becomes equivalent to determining the average preferred stimulus of a given neuron, or the first order Weiner kernel (Marmarelis and Marmarelis, 1978 and Victor and Knight, 1979) and thus is a description of the linear part

of the neuron’s transfer function. The requirement for spectral whiteness is met by the use of carefully-constructed stimuli such as M-sequences that have been used to map RFs in the primate retina (Benardete and Kaplan, 1997a and Benardete and Kaplan, 1997b), LGN (Reid and Shapley, 2002 and Usrey and Reid, 2000), V1 (Cottaris and De Valois, 1998), and higher order visual areas (Bair

et al., 2002). In the Nutlin-3a manufacturer primate LGN in particular, Reid and Shapley (2002) used M-sequences to investigate functional differences between cell types in the different LGN laminae, including examining the specific retinal cone contribution to thalamic responses by shifting the black-and-white luminance axis in their checkerboards to cone-isolating colors. They found that M cell responses were transient, red-green P cell responses were relatively sustained, and blue K cell responses were the most sustained (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Although

in cats rather than monkeys, Reid et al. (1997) also performed a similar experiment to examine the linear receptive field properties of Y cells with Rolziracetam high temporal resolution. Most M and P cells in the primate LGN have linear firing properties that can be explained by linearly weighting the stimulus light pattern by a CRF map (see Fig. 2), however, as described in Section 4, nonlinear properties such as EC suppression of M cells have been found. These nonlinear RF properties can be examined using spike-triggered covariance (STC) analysis. Solomon et al. (2010) used flickering uniform fields to stimulate primate LGN neurons, and STAs and STCs to derive estimates of the linear and second-order nonlinear receptive fields. The authors arrived at the interesting conclusion that there is a class of nonlinear cells in the LGN that encode contrast energy. Thus future investigations will benefit from taking into account nonlinearities in experimental design and analysis. Chichilnisky presents an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of random white noise stimuli (Chichilnisky, 2001). The benefits include minimizing the effects of adaptation, the ability to compute model-free linear responses easily, and model-free nonlinear ones with sufficient data, or, by the inclusion of a simple model, the ability to compute standard nonlinear responses quickly.

Other reviews have also shown that the extent of thyroidectomy, h

Other reviews have also shown that the extent of thyroidectomy, hyperthyroidism, thyroid

resection for malignancy and re-operative surgery do not reliably predict those most at risk of developing a haematoma [3], [11] and [26]. A higher incidence of haematomas requiring evacuation in thyroid re-operations Roxadustat compared with primary procedures, and re-operative hyperthyroid patients compared to euthyroid has been shown [19], [24] and [27]. Swedish registry and Promberger’s data suggest that older age and male gender are risk factors [11] and [24]. Promberger also showed that the risk of postoperative haematoma was increased two fold by extent of resection and bilateral procedure and as much as seven fold between surgeons of variable experience. Assuming a 1–2% risk of postoperative bleeding [4], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [18] and [26] and recognising that bleed prediction is unreliable ensuring Ku-0059436 ic50 safe management of this complication is paramount. In day case surgery, it is the timing and severity of the bleed that is most important. Provided the necessary resources

are available, an early bleed recognized and dealt with before discharge is no different to the patient treated as an in-patient. Early bleeds are perceived to be more dangerous than a later bleed, as is the severity of haemorrhage between hemi- and total thyroidectomy. Mirnezami’s review of 1571 cases suggested that all patients with significant haemorrhage display signs of bleeding within the first few hours, and those with potential airway obstruction within 4 hours [2]. Promberger’s series [24] showed 81% of postoperative haematomas occurred within 6 hours of thyroidectomy, 17% between 6 and 24 hours and only 2% after 24 hours. However, Leyre et al.’s retrospective review of nearly

7000 thyroidectomies performed in Poitier, France reporting 70 haematomata (1%) showed only 37 (53%) occurred within 6 hours [3]. The rest occurred after 6 hours (i.e.: post-discharge for the day case patient) with 26 (37%) between 7 and Ketanserin 24 hours from surgery and 7 (10%) after 24 hours. Likewise, Burkey’s large series found only 43% occurring within 6 hours, 37% between 7–24 hours and 19% over 24 hours [25]. Lang et al. reported 70% within 6 hours, the rest between 6 and 24 hours [19]. These retrospective reviews are unselected patients and, as commented by Lo Gerfo et al., do not consider symptoms or the possibility that intervention in those with early symptomatic haematomas may alleviate the risk of obstruction [28]. Using decision model analysis on earlier US thyroidectomy mortality data, Schwartz et al. estimated 94 haemorrhage-related deaths per 100,000 could be prevented by observation for 24 hrs (i.e., advocating a 23-hour stay) as opposed to 6 hours [29]. It appears the bleeding risk after 23 hours is generally acceptable [2], [19] and [24].

To enable coupling of peptides to streptavidin coated beads for t

To enable coupling of peptides to streptavidin coated beads for the Luminex system (see below) a separate set of 14-mer MAP Hsp70 peptides, selected based on the first screening with the 14-mer Obeticholic Acid ic50 peptides, was synthesized using SMPS and modified using amino-terminal biotinylation. A third set of 15-mer peptides consisting of mycobacterial, Bos taurus and E. coli homologues to identified MAP Hsp70 linear epitopes was also synthesized using SMPS and modified using amino-terminal biotinylation. The generation of monoclonal antibodies has been described previously [20]. Briefly, 100 μg of recombinant MAP Hsp70 protein in 80 μL

PBS was mixed with 100 μL Specol [21] (Prionics, the Netherlands) to obtain a water in oil emulsion used for i.p. immunization of Balb/c mice. This immunization was repeated 3 weeks later. Another 3 weeks later, four days prior to hybridoma production the mice were boosted i.v. with 50 μg of the antigen in 50 μL PBS. After 4 days spleen cells were fused with mouse myeloma cells (Sp2/0) using polyethyleneglycol (PEG, Merck, Germany). Antigen specific antibody Anti-cancer Compound Library nmr producing hybridoma’s were selected by ELISA [22] and subcloned in limiting dilution. The isotype of the monoclonal antibodies was determined using the Mouse Hybridoma Subtyping Kit (Roche, the Netherlands). In general, 96

well EIA plates (Corning Costar Corp., USA) were coated with 100 μL of antigen diluted in sodium bicarbonate buffer (pH 9.6), for 60 min at 37 °C. All subsequent incubations were performed for 30 min at 37 °C, and after each incubation step plates were washed 3 times with PBS containing 0.05% Tween 20. Wells were blocked with 200 μL blocking solution (Roche,

the Netherlands). All antibody fractions were diluted in blocking solution and peroxidase labelled to appropriate antibodies was used as enzyme. Finally, plates were washed extensively, and 100 μL ABTS (2,2′-azinobis (3 ethyl) benzthiazolinsulfonic acid (Roche, the Netherlands) substrate buffer was added to each well. The optical density (OD) was measured after 10 min at 405 nm on a spectrophotometric Elisa reader (Bio-Rad laboratories, USA). Absorbance values were subsequently analyzed. The MAP Hsp70 protein, bovine Hsc70 protein, PPDP, PPDA, and PPDB ELISA to measure antibody responses in cattle sera Histone demethylase were performed according to methods described previously [6] with minor modifications to detect murine and caprine antibodies as follows. Hybridoma supernatants or sera of immunized/infected goats were used in a predetermined optimal dilution or were serially diluted in blocking buffer as indicated. Secondary antibodies used were polyclonal goat anti-mouse peroxidase (PO) conjugated antibodies (Sigma Aldrich, USA) to detect murine monoclonal antibodies, and rabbit anti-goat IgG-PO (Sigma Aldrich, USA) to detect caprine antibodies. The mycobacterial whole cell ELISA was a modification to the protein ELISA.

Additionally, there were no supplementary immunization activities

Additionally, there were no supplementary immunization activities (vaccination campaigns) for measles conducted in Sri Lanka during the period of the trial. Ongoing transmission of measles is Akt inhibitor unlikely to have contributed to the increases

in seropositivity, as Sri Lanka has maintained very high rates of measles vaccination among infants since 2000 [8], and there were no known/reported outbreaks of measles in the District of Colombo during the study period. And finally, unrecognized measles transmission would have had to occur at very high community attack rates in infants (e.g. 90%), as we found long-term increases in anti-measles IgG after 28 days post-vaccination in nearly all infants in the study. Few studies have prospectively measured measles antibody responses so long after vaccination with a single dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of age, but studies in the Gambia [9] and [10] (measles vaccine co-administered with yellow fever vaccine) and Malawi STAT inhibitor [11] (measles vaccine given alone) have made similar findings of continually increasing measles immune responses at 9–15

months post-vaccination in the absence of identified measles outbreaks and with “no explanation for this trend” [10]. Regarding our findings for the immune response to JE, these results are similar to those obtained in a study among 9-month-old infants in the Philippines in which measles vaccine and LJEV were administered concomitantly [5] and [12]. The seropositivity to JE measured at one month was nearly identical in the Sri Lankan and Philippine infants (90.7% vs 90.5%, respectively), although the JE GMTs were somewhat lower in the Sri Lankan infants (111 vs 155, respectively). The significance

of the TCL lower GMTs are uncertain, given that GMTs in both populations are well above the WHO-recommended threshold of protection of a 1:10 dilution in a 50% PRNT assay [4]. It is reassuring that 1 year following administration of the vaccine, JE antibody concentrations were well-maintained in Sri Lankan children. In studies in infants and young children that have measured the response to LJEV alone, seropositivity rates post-vaccination have ranged from 86% in Bangladesh [13], to 92% in the Philippines [5], to 95% in Thailand [14] and 96% in Korea [15]. A key limitation of this study was that there was not a control group followed in parallel to strengthen interpretation of immunogenicity and safety. Additionally, we measured seropositivity for measles antibodies using ELISA, which does specifically measure neutralizing antibodies; only results from PRNT for measles are considered truly indicative of seroprotective responses to measles [16].

Didanosine was mixed, incubated for 1 h at room temperature Etha

Didanosine was mixed, incubated for 1 h at room temperature. Ethanol was added dropwise at a rate of 1 ml/min into the BSA solutions as a desolvating agent until the solutions became just turbid. Thereafter 30 min of the desolvation process, 100 μl of an 8% v/v aqueous solution of glutaraldehyde was added to induce particle cross linking. This process was performed during stirring over a time period of 3 h at room temperature. The nanosuspensions were purified by two cycle centrifugation at 20,000 rpm for 30 min and then subjected to freeze drying after adding 2% (w/v) mannitol as a cryoprotectant for 8 h to obtain fine powder of nanoparticles. The dried nanoparticles obtained were then transferred

to vials and were stored at 4 °C. Coating was done for D1 immediately after cross linking by adding 1% polysorbate 80 and was Selleck NVP-BGJ398 incubated for 30 min, as per the procedure described by Amit Bansal et al. Finally the nanosuspensions

was centrifuged and lyophilized with 2% mannitol. Compatibility of ddi and BSA, were analyzed using FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy, Shimadzu Corporation, Japan by the potassium bromide disc method (1:100). The DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, MettlereToledo star 822 systems, Switzerland) thermogram of drug and lyophilized nanoparticles gives information regarding the physical properties and melting point of the drug. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to characterize the Sclareol surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles to detect their morphological character of nanoparticles. This was done by placing freeze dried nanoparticles on brass stub then were gold-coated to render them electrically conductive and examined under the Scanning Electron Microscope at 20 kV (JSM 6100 JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). The particle size and zeta potential of didanosine albumin nanoparticles was determined by dynamic light scattering, using a Malvern system, with vertically polarized supplied by Helium/Neon laser (red laser) operated at 4 mM, 633 nm. The samples were dispersed in distilled water and taken in clear disposable zeta cell. The experiments were

performed with non-invasive backscatter technology at a temperature of 25.0 ± 0.1 °C at a detection angle of 173° to the incident beam. Freshly prepared nanosuspensions were centrifuged at 20,000 rpm for 30 min and the amount of unincorporated didanosine in supernatant liquid was measured. The % entrapment efficiency (EE) and % drug loading were calculated according to the following formula. %EE=[Amountofdrugactuallypresentinnanoparticles/amountofdrugactuallyadded]×100 %Drugloading=[(Totalamountofdrugadded−amountofunbounddruginsupernatantliquid)/totalamountofdrugadded]×100 The dug release studies were carried out by dialysis method. A known quantity of nanoparticles equivalent to 10 mg of the drug was taken in a cellulose dialysis bag (molecular weight cut off 5 kDa, Himedia, India) and added 5 ml of pH 7.4 phosphate buffer.

If PCV has not been recommended, the control group could be given

If PCV has not been recommended, the control group could be given placebo, provided it is ethically acceptable in the trial population. If a placebo is not acceptable, a non-pneumococcal control vaccine should be sought. Preferably, it should be a vaccine already registered, rather than an investigational one. Optimally, the non-pneumococcal control vaccine should not impact the microbiota of the upper respiratory tract as interactions between different bacterial occupying the same ecological niche have been observed [12]. If the use of a non-pneumococcal control vaccine is

not an acceptable Selleck Selinexor approach, the presently used (licensed) pneumococcal vaccine may serve as an active control. The main points in choosing the control vaccine are summarised in Table 1. We consider the statistical power of VEcol studies for showing either the efficacy against SB431542 research buy all vaccine-type (VT) acquisition or serotype-specific efficacy

against acquisition of individual serotypes. The estimation method is based on a cross-sectional sample under the assumption of no efficacy on duration [1] and [10]. Based on the scenarios presented in the previous section, we discuss the following two alternatives regarding the control vaccine: (A) A control vaccine with known zero (biological) efficacy against the pneumococcal colonisation endpoint; Controlled trials. Alternative A leads to a standard superiority trial with a non-active control.

Here, the statistical power is defined as the probability for the lower bound of the confidence interval for VEacq to exceed 0 under the alternative hypothesis, i.e. when VEacq is at least D (the smallest meaningful efficacy). The choice of D can be based on the herd immunity threshold, that is, a level of direct protection against colonisation which would induce significant indirect protection in the population. Theoretical modelling suggests that even 50% efficacy (VEacq) could be enough for herd immunity, if the coverage of vaccination in the infant programme is high [13]. Fig. 2 presents the power of a controlled study under scenario A for different 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl values of the sample size (number of individuals per study group) and the hypothesised efficacy (D). For example, a group size of 300 is enough to obtain 80% power, if the vaccine efficacy against vaccine-type acquisition is 50%. The results are essentially similar under high (left panel) or moderate (right panel) overall rate of pneumococcal acquisition. Head-to-head trials. Under alternative B, the investigational vaccine’s effect is measured against an active pneumococcal vaccine. The hazard rate ratio (investigational vs.

In univariate sensitivity analysis, vaccine efficacy (for cervica

In univariate sensitivity analysis, vaccine efficacy (for cervical and non-cervical sites), duration of protection, percent of anogenital warts due to HPV-6/11, proportion of the male population that are men-who-have-sex-with-men Paclitaxel (MSM), relative risk of disease in MSM vs. heterosexual men, costs and QALY-weights were varied between their minimum and maximum values found in the literature (Supplementary Tables 1 and 2). Finally, favourable scenarios for vaccination of boys were examined in multivariate sensitivity analysis. Variability of model predictions due to natural history parameters is presented

as the median, and first and third quartiles of simulation results, referred to as the interquartile ranges (IQR). Table 1 shows the

potential population-level effectiveness of two- and three-dose schedules assuming different durations of protection 3-deazaneplanocin A cost (see Supplementary Fig. 2 for post-vaccination dynamics). Under our base-case (coverage = 80%, vaccine-type efficacy = 95%) and assuming two-dose vaccine duration of protection is 10 years, two-dose girls-only vaccination is predicted to prevent a cumulative 13% of HPV-related cancer cases (12% anogenital warts consultations) over 70 years. Over the same time-horizon, giving a third dose in a girls-only vaccination programme prevents between 13 and 15% extra HPV-related cancer cases, if the duration of protection from three doses is between 25 years and lifelong. The equivalent expanded reductions in anogenital warts consultations are between 54 and 60%. Switching to a two-dose girls & boys strategy would prevent an extra 3% HPV-related cancer cases and 9% anogenital warts consultations compared to a two-dose girls-only vaccination policy. However, when these assuming the duration

of protection of two doses is 20 or 30 years, the incremental benefits of giving a third dose to girls-only or switching to a two-dose girls & boys strategy are predicted to be relatively small (e.g., between 2 and 6% extra HPV-related cancer cases prevented; Table 1). Of note, the additional benefits provided by a third dose to girls-only are mostly among females whilst the majority of benefits of switching to a two-dose girls & boys strategy are among MSM. Fig. 1 shows the discounted QALYs-gained and cost offsets for girls-only and girls & boys vaccination programmes using two- and three-dose schedules. The incremental QALYs-saved and cost offsets by giving a third dose to girls-only are relatively small when assuming that two-dose protection is 20 years or more, but would increase the overall cost of the programme by almost 30%. Unless two and three doses provide equal duration of protection, switching to a two-dose girls & boys vaccination strategy is predicted to provide similar or lower incremental discounted QALYs-gained and cost-offsets than adding a third dose to girls-only.

The web address is: www cbs dtu dk/services/LipoP 13 A protein su

The web address is: A protein sub cellular localization was influenced by several Capmatinib features present within the protein’s primary structure, such as the presence of a signal peptide or membrane-spanning alpha-helices. The server used to predict the membrane spanning probability. The web address is: Those proteins selected from aforementioned programs were screened and filtered further for conserved nature among the genus Shigella sp. In view, protein databases of S. boydii (Sbd), S. flexneri (Sfx), S. dysenteriae (Sdt), S. pseudotuberculosis (Spt), and S. rettegeri

(Srt) were used in analysis. Finally, those proteins shown homology in all four Yersinia sp. SCH772984 purchase were considered as vaccine leads. The web address is: 15 and 16 In total 4470 proteins of S. sonnei, signalP sorted 333 proteins harboring signal sequence. The selection of each surface antigen was based on positive peptide signals for all five values measured as: max. C, max. Y, max. S, mean S, and mean D as shown in Fig. 1(A and B). By screening 4470 proteins of S. sonnei, algorithm predicted presence of transmembrane

helices in the 326 proteins, which were further screened for number of transmembrane helices spanned by each protein in the membrane. Hence in decision, leads having more than two transmembrane helices were not considered as leads as in Phosphoprotein phosphatase Fig. 2. Out of 4470 proteins of S. sonnei screened for presence of lipoprotein, only 461 predicted to have defined signals, collectively for Sp I and Sp II enzymes. The positive leads as lipoprotein were selected based on highest score obtained by either Sp I or Sp II as compared to score of TMH and CYT as in Fig. 3(A and B). In PSORTb, out of 4470 proteins, only 1005 proteins predicted positive for surface antigen

nature which suggested that these proteins could span plasma or cell wall region as shown in Fig. 4. Advanced BLASTP program with E-value threshold of 0.0001 helped to find out Shigella specific conserved vaccine leads obtained from four programs. BLASTP has reduced the vaccine lead number to acceptable total 63. These leads were finally represented as vaccine candidates as they all qualified for conserved lipoproteins and cell wall anchored proteins which was required for vaccine success as in Table 1. The availability of complete genome sequences of pathogens has dramatically changed the scope for developing improved and novel vaccines by increasing the speed of target identification. The reverse vaccinology approach takes an advantage of the genome sequence of the pathogen. In view, we have attempted to use the reverse vaccinology approach to decipher the potent surface antigens by which highly conserved 63 plasma membrane anchored proteins were reported.