Other reviews have also shown that the extent of thyroidectomy, hyperthyroidism, thyroid
resection for malignancy and re-operative surgery do not reliably predict those most at risk of developing a haematoma ,  and . A higher incidence of haematomas requiring evacuation in thyroid re-operations Roxadustat compared with primary procedures, and re-operative hyperthyroid patients compared to euthyroid has been shown ,  and . Swedish registry and Promberger’s data suggest that older age and male gender are risk factors  and . Promberger also showed that the risk of postoperative haematoma was increased two fold by extent of resection and bilateral procedure and as much as seven fold between surgeons of variable experience. Assuming a 1–2% risk of postoperative bleeding , , , , , , ,  and  and recognising that bleed prediction is unreliable ensuring Ku-0059436 ic50 safe management of this complication is paramount. In day case surgery, it is the timing and severity of the bleed that is most important. Provided the necessary resources
are available, an early bleed recognized and dealt with before discharge is no different to the patient treated as an in-patient. Early bleeds are perceived to be more dangerous than a later bleed, as is the severity of haemorrhage between hemi- and total thyroidectomy. Mirnezami’s review of 1571 cases suggested that all patients with significant haemorrhage display signs of bleeding within the first few hours, and those with potential airway obstruction within 4 hours . Promberger’s series  showed 81% of postoperative haematomas occurred within 6 hours of thyroidectomy, 17% between 6 and 24 hours and only 2% after 24 hours. However, Leyre et al.’s retrospective review of nearly
7000 thyroidectomies performed in Poitier, France reporting 70 haematomata (1%) showed only 37 (53%) occurred within 6 hours . The rest occurred after 6 hours (i.e.: post-discharge for the day case patient) with 26 (37%) between 7 and Ketanserin 24 hours from surgery and 7 (10%) after 24 hours. Likewise, Burkey’s large series found only 43% occurring within 6 hours, 37% between 7–24 hours and 19% over 24 hours . Lang et al. reported 70% within 6 hours, the rest between 6 and 24 hours . These retrospective reviews are unselected patients and, as commented by Lo Gerfo et al., do not consider symptoms or the possibility that intervention in those with early symptomatic haematomas may alleviate the risk of obstruction . Using decision model analysis on earlier US thyroidectomy mortality data, Schwartz et al. estimated 94 haemorrhage-related deaths per 100,000 could be prevented by observation for 24 hrs (i.e., advocating a 23-hour stay) as opposed to 6 hours . It appears the bleeding risk after 23 hours is generally acceptable ,  and .