These agents are beginning to find a role in routine use for surg

These agents are beginning to find a role in routine use for surgery in both the elective and emergent settings. This article reviews the mechanisms of different haemostasis methods and the current evidence for their use in neurosurgery, with a focus on the more recently introduced gelatin-thrombin matrix sealant (Floseal (R) [Baxter, Hayward, CA, USA]). (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1,

the main risk factor for metastases is pancreatic turnout size. We and others recommend limiting surgery to non-functioning pancreatic tumors >= 20 mm or growing, based on their size measured with endoscopic ultrasonography. Because endoscopic ultrasonography is GSI-IX mouse invasive, we compared endoscopic ultrasonography

(EUS) to non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of pancreatic tumors >= 10 mm in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients.\n\nMethods: A prospective study was performed in nine participating centres; 90 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 underwent EUS and MRI with gadolinium infusion. Gastroenterologists and radiologists were blinded to the results, magnetic resonance images were reviewed centrally.\n\nResults: EUS detected 86 tumors >= 10 mm, and 48(53.3%) patients had at least one tumour >= 10 mm. MRI detected 67 tumors >= 10 mm, and 46(51.1%) STA-9090 cell line patients had at least one tumour >= 10 mm. EUS and MRI agreement was moderate for detection of tumors >= 10 mm (Kappa coefficient = 0.49), and for selection of patients LY3023414 cell line with tumours >= 10

mm (Kappa coefficient = 0.55). EUS and MRI missed 11/24 and 4/24 lesions >= 20 mm, respectively. EUS failed to identify 9/57 (15.7%) patients with pancreatic tumours >= 10 mm, and MRI failed to identify 11/57 (19.3%) patients with pancreatic tumors >= 10 mm.\n\nConclusions: EUS and MRI are complementary and should be performed at initial evaluation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients. Whether follow-up should be based on either technique or both, requires further evaluation. (C) 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Aims: Hepatitis E virus is a major cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in developing countries.\n\nMethods: Literature search using the Medline (1966 to July 2008), EMBASE/Excerpta Medica (1980 to July 2008), OVID (1966 to July 2008), Google Scholar (for Local websites; and medical journals), SID, websites of Iranian universities and IranMedex was done.\n\nResults: The prevalence of hepatitis E infection in Iranian general population is increasing significantly with age. The prevalence in Iran is less than Pakistan. Consumption of contaminated water is an important mean for the spread of this enteric transmissible disease. Pigs and animals have a low role in HEV infection in our region.

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