Patients with resting or relative bradycardia may be at higher th

Patients with resting or relative bradycardia may be at higher than average risk.”
“Artificial neural networks

(ANN) are one of the highly preferred artificial intelligence techniques for brain image segmentation. The commonly used ANN is the supervised ANN, namely Back Propagation Neural Network (BPN). Even though BPNs guarantee high efficiency, they are computationally non-feasible due to the huge convergence time period. In this work, the aspect of computational complexity is tackled using the proposed high speed BPN algorithm (HSBPN). In this modified approach, the weight vectors are calculated without any training methodology. Magnetic resonance (MR) brain tumor images of three stages; namely severe, moderate and mild, are

used in this work. An extensive feature set is extracted from these images and used as input learn more for the neural network. A comparative analysis is performed between the conventional BPN and the HSBPN in terms of convergence time period and segmentation efficiency. Experimental results show the superior nature of HSBPN in terms of the performance measures.”
“Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetic cause for intellectual disability. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice are an established model of FXS. Chronic pharmacological inhibition of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) in these mice corrects multiple molecular, physiological, and behavioral phenotypes related to patients’ symptoms. To better understand the pathophysiology of FXS and the effect of treatment, brain activity was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in relation to learning and memory performance. Methods: Wild-type (WT) and Fmr1 KO animals receiving chronic treatment with the mGlu5 inhibitor CTEP or

vehicle were evaluated consecutively for 1) learning and memory performance in the inhibitory avoidance and extinction test, and 2) for the levels of brain activity using continuous arterial spin labeling based functional magnetic FK228 resonance imaging. Neural activity patterns were correlated with cognitive performance using a multivariate regression analysis. Furthermore, mGlu5 receptor expression in brains of untreated mice was analyzed by autoradiography and saturation analysis using [H-3]-ABP688. Results: Chronic CTEP treatment corrected the learning deficit observed in Fmr1 KO mice in the inhibitory avoidance and extinction test and prevented memory extinction in WT and Fmr1 KO animals. Chronic CTEP treatment normalized perfusion in the amygdala and the lateral hypothalamus in Fmr1 KO mice and furthermore decreased perfusion in the hippocampus and increased perfusion in primary sensorimotor cortical areas. No significant differences in mGlu5 receptor expression levels between Fmr1 WT and KO mice were detected.

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