Results: Selleckchem EPZ5676 Patients and controls were comparable with respect to basic cognitive measures. PD patients
and controls performed equivalently within the counting condition (A), but patients needed significantly more trials to initiate the subtraction strategy. With the exception of 1 PD patient, all patients were able to internally initiate the strategy (condition B). In condition C, both groups increased reaction times, but patients were significantly slower than controls. Moreover, only patients significantly increased error rates after strategy instruction.
Conclusion: As long as sufficient time is provided for solving the task, results do not show a general deficit in the ability to internally generate a cognitive strategy in PD. Failures in strategy BI 2536 utilization strongly depend on cognitive load (working memory, executive functions). This bears important implications for the neuropsychological rehabilitation of PD patients. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Detailed 3-dimensional anatomic information is essential when planning strategies of surgical treatment for patients with complex congenitally malformed hearts. Current imaging techniques, however, do not always provide all the necessary anatomic information in a user-friendly fashion. We sought to assess the practical clinical value of realistic
3-dimensional models of complex congenitally malformed hearts.
Methods: In 11 patients, aged from 0.8 to 27 years, all with complex congenitally malformed hearts, an unequivocal decision regarding the optimum surgical strategy had not been reached when using standard next diagnostic tools. Therefore, we constructed 3-dimensional virtual computer and printed cast models of the heart on the basis of high-resolution whole-heart or cine magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Anatomic descriptions were compared with intraoperative findings when surgery
Results: Independently of age-related factors, images acquired in all patients using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography proved to be of sufficient quality for producing the models without major differences in the postprocessing and revealing the anatomy in an unequivocal 3-dimensional context. Examination of the models provided invaluable additional information that supported the surgical decision-making. The anatomy as shown in the models was confirmed during surgery. Biventricular corrective surgery was achieved in 5 patients, palliative surgery was achieved in 3 patients, and lack of suitable surgical options was confirmed in the remaining 3 patients.
Conclusion: Realistic 3-dimensional modeling of the heart provides a new means for the assessment of complex intracardiac anatomy. We expect this method to change current diagnostic approaches and facilitate preoperative planning.