In contrast, quasi-ultrafine PM alone had a significant effect on

In contrast, quasi-ultrafine PM alone had a significant effect on heart rate and in reducing heart rate variability.\n\nConclusion: These findings indicate that coarse and fine PM influence lung function and airways responsiveness, while ultrafine PM can perturb cardiac function. This study supports the hypothesis that coarse and fine PM exerts its predominant physiologic effects

at the site of deposition in the airways, whereas ultrafine PM likely crosses the alveolar epithelial barrier into the systemic circulation to affect cardiovascular function.”
“Purpose of review\n\nResults of clinical studies on targeted cancer therapies Napabucasin are rapidly accumulating. This is also true in the field of head and neck cancer (HNC). Due to the unique multidisciplinary

needs of the disease, it is of paramount importance that physicians who treat HNC are aware 5-Fluoracil in vivo of the evolving changes that research is offering.\n\nRecent findings\n\nMany targeted agents directed at inhibiting epithelial growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are under investigation in both curable loco-regional advanced disease in combination with standard treatments and in the recurrent metastatic setting. Human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive tumors present a distinct biological profile. Consequently, the role of targeted agents in this specific setting still needs to be refined. Herein we will briefly review the results of the most recent studies on targeted agents. Cetuximab and other monoclonal antibodies (panitumumab, zalotumumab and nimotumumab) have been already investigated in phase III studies; and some results are now available. Small molecules inhibiting EGFR Z-IETD-FMK have still to prove their efficacy. Other agents such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor, vascular endoinsulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, MET, PI3KA and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor

are in development.\n\nSummary\n\nAt present treatment options in HNC are changing and include targeted agents with demonstrated efficacy. A better selection based on biological factors of patients who are potentially responsive to such targeted agents is being actively pursued.”
“We consider the problem of aligning two metabolic pathways. Unlike traditional approaches, we do not restrict the alignment to one-to-one mappings between the molecules (nodes) of the input pathways (graphs). We follow the observation that, in nature, different organisms can perform the same or similar functions through different sets of reactions and molecules. The number and the topology of the molecules in these alternative sets often vary from one organism to another. With the motivation that an accurate biological alignment should be able to reveal these functionally similar molecule sets across different species, we develop an algorithm that first measures the similarities between different nodes using a mixture of homology and topological similarity.

Preparedness for practice was substantially higher following the

Preparedness for practice was substantially higher following the New Zealand trainee intern year than has been reported with other pre-intern placements.”

Smoking is a significant health hazard that has been associated with poor reproductive outcome and reduced fertility in reproductive age women. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nargile smoking on intra-cytoplasmic sperm Linsitinib mw injection (ICSI) outcome.\n\nStudy design: A prospective analysis of the outcomes of 297 women who underwent ICSI treatment at the ART Unit at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between January 1, and December 31, 2006 was done. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on their smoking status: cigarette smokers (n = 42), nargile smokers (n = 51) and non-smokers (n = 204).\n\nResults: The mean age of nargile smokers was significantly lower than the other groups; however, the 3 groups were similar with respect to the cause of infertility, total dose of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), number of oocytes and embryos obtained, and number and quality of embryos transferred. There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rate between nargile VE-821 sds smokers and non-smokers

(51.0% vs 43.6%). However, cigarette smokers had a significantly lower clinical pregnancy rate compared to non-smokers (23.8% vs 43.6%, p = 0.0238). On multiple logistic regression analysis, factors that decreased the clinical pregnancy rates were cigarette smoking and maternal age.\n\nConclusion: CH5183284 order Although this study did not find a deleterious effect of nargile smoking on ICSI outcome, the results need to be confirmed in prospective studies that would include larger number of women

with more objective measures of nargile smoke exposure. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Infiltrating astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas of low to anaplastic grade (WHO grades II and III), in spite of being associated with a wide range of clinical outcomes, can be difficult to subclassify and grade by the current histopathologic criteria. Unlike oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas that can be identified by the 1p/19q codeletion and the more malignant glioblastomas (WHO grade IV astrocytomas) that can be diagnosed solely based on objective features on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections, no such objective criteria exist for the subclassification of grade II-III astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas (A+OA II-III). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of the stem cell marker nestin in adult A+OA II-III (n = 50) using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted analysis on tissue microarrays. In addition, the correlation between nestin mRNA level and total survival was analyzed in the NCI Rembrandt database. The results showed that high nestin expression is a strong adverse prognostic factor for total survival (p = 0.0004).

0%, 1 5% and 2 0% After 5 min of immersion, the engorged females

0%, 1.5% and 2.0%. After 5 min of immersion, the engorged females were fixed on Petri dishes with the

aid of a double-sided adhesive tape and kept in a climatized room regulated at 27 +/- Selleck cancer metabolism inhibitor 1A degrees C and UR > 80 A +/- 10%, and different parameters referring to the biology of the non-parasitary phase were evaluated daily. The values found for thymol efficacy on nymphs were 0.0%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% in concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%, respectively. In the experiment with engorged females, thymol did not induce any significant alterations (p < 0.05) in the parameters of weight alteration, egg mass weight, pre-oviposition period, hatching percentage, egg production index and nutritional index; however, it affected the engorged females final weight in all treatments (p > 0.05). The concentration of thymol 2% was the one that showed a better efficacy Daporinad (41%). It was concluded that thymol had a more accentuated deleterious effect on engorged nymphs, and it might be a promising supporting agent for the control of this ixodid.”
“Background: We hypothesized that changes in the levels of sexual hormones during the menstrual cycle influence the concentration of nitric oxide in the exhaled air (FeNO) and alveolar exhaled nitric oxide (CANO).\n\nMethods: Twelve healthy, non allergic women in their reproductive age (age range 25-37 years) were recruited.

Subjects were studied, on alternate days, over the

course of their menstrual cycle. At each Selleckchem PKC412 visit, measurements of FeNO and CANO were performed. Progesterone and 17-beta-estradiol concentrations were measured in salivary samples.\n\nResults: Eight subjects completed the study. The levels of FeNO and CANO were 13 +/- 4.7 pbb and 3.5 +/- 1.9 pbb, respectively (mean SD). The mean salivary concentration of progesterone was 65.1 +/- 16.2 pg/ml (mean SD), with a range of 32.4-107.7 pg/ml, and the concentration of 17 beta-estradiol was 6.0 +/- 1.6 pg/ml, with a range of 3.1-12.9 pg/ml. The Generalized Estimating Equations procedure demonstrated that levels of progesterone influenced both FeNO and CANO (Wald chi 2 = 11.60, p = 0.001; and Wald chi 2 = 87.55, p = 0.001, respectively). On the contrary, the salivary levels of 17 beta-estradiol were not significantly associated with FeNO (Wald chi 2 = 0.087, p = 0.768) or CANO (Wald chi 2 = 0.58, p = 0.448).\n\nConclusion: In healthy women, the menstrual cycle-associated hormonal fluctuations selectively influence the levels of bronchial and alveolar NO. The current findings may have important clinical implications for the interpretation of eNO levels, by identifying a patient-related factor that influences the eNO measurements. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this article, we consider monotone nonparametric regression in a Bayesian framework.

Using iodide single-wavelength anomalous dispersion, we report th

Using iodide single-wavelength anomalous dispersion, we report the first structural characterization of TphB to 1.85 angstrom resolution. Contrary to prior speculations, a fluorescent scan unambiguously shows that TphB coordinates Zn2+ and not Fe2+. The molecular architecture of TphB provides a rationale to the primary-level divergence observed between TphB and other cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenases while explaining its intriguingly close evolutionary clustering check details with non-dihydrodiol dehydrogenases belonging to the isocitrate/iso-propylmalate family of enzymes. Sequence and structural analyses reveal a putative substrate-binding pocket proximal to the bound Zn2+. In silico

substrate modeling in this putative binding pocket suggests a mechanistic sequence relying on H291, K295, and Zn2+ as core mediators of catalytic turnover. Overall, this study reveals novel Quizartinib concentration structural and mechanistic insights into a decarboxylating cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase that mediates one of the two catalytic steps in the

biodegradation of the environmental pollutant Tph. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Stretching frequencies of acyl groups of stabilized triphenyl phosphonium ylides with ester, keto or cyano groups depend in part on the orientations of the acyl groups, syn or anti, with respect to phosphorus. Frequencies predicted by ab initio HF methods are higher than observed, and for diesters and diketones are higher for anti than syn acyl groups. For diester and diketo ylides and their cyano derivatives a Scale Factor, SF, of 0.866, fits much of the data with HF/6-31G(d) calculations, although it is lower than the literature value. The literature SF values see more for DFT methods, e.g., BLYP/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-31G(d), are closer to unity, and agreement with experiment is reasonable, except that for mixed anti isopropyloxy or t-butyloxy and syn methoxy or ethoxy diester ylides predicted stretching frequencies of the syn acyl groups by BLYP are too low, and fits are worse than with HF/6-31G(d), but B3LYP gives

satisfactory results. The combination of ab initio methods and determination of IR acyl stretching frequencies may be useful when structure determination of stabilized ester, keto and cyano ylides by X-ray crystallography is not feasible, or when con former interconversion in solution is too fast for use of NMR spectroscopy. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We report here on a case of a 27-year-old man with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with influenza A H1N1 infection. Treatment with oseltamivir, plasma exchange and hemodiafiltration for the hemolytic uremic syndrome and meticulous supportive care with steroid pulse therapy for the pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage was successful in this case.


Endovascular RG-7112 Apoptosis inhibitor treatment has been thought to be helpful in patients who fail

to respond to medical treatment alone, but recent data contradict such expectation.”
“Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural P005091 supplier rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing

type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P smaller than 005). External intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P smaller than 005). Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity did not show significant differences

between breathing types in the tasks studied (P bigger than 005). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest.”
“Chimera formation is a powerful tool for analyzing pluripotency in vivo. It has been widely accepted that host cell lineages are generally accessible to embryonic stem (ES) cells with the actual contribution depending GSI-IX datasheet solely on the intrinsic pluripotency of transplanted donor cells. Here, we show in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) that the host accessibility to ES cell contribution exhibits dramatic differences. Specifically, of three albino host strains tested (i (1) , i (3) and af), only strain i (1) generated pigmented chimeras. Strikingly, this accessibility is completely lost in i (1) but acquired in i (3) after host gamma-irradiation. Host irradiation also differentially affected ES cell contribution to somatic organs and gonad.

5 and 3 5 for fIGF-1

criteria in the 0 5-0 9 ng ml(-1) ra

5 and 3.5 for fIGF-1

criteria in the 0.5-0.9 ng ml(-1) range. Patients above each criterion had a substantial improvement selleck chemicals in progression-free survival on PCF20 related to PC alone. Free IGF-1 correlated inversely with IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1, rho = -0.295, P = 0.005), and the pre-treatment ratio of insulin to IGFBP-1 was also predictive of F clinical benefit. In addition, fIGF-1 levels correlated with tumour vimentin expression (rho = 0.594, P = 0.021) and inversely with E-cadherin (rho = -0.389, P = 0.152), suggesting a role for fIGF-1 in tumour de-differentiation. CONCLUSION: Free IGF-1 may contribute to the identification of a subset of NSCLC patients who benefit from F therapy. British Journal of Cancer (2011) 104, 68-74. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605972 Published online 23 November 2010 (C) 2011 Cancer Research UK”
“Pregabalin (PGB) has shown potential as an anxiolytic for treatment of generalized and social anxiety disorder. PGB binds to voltage-dependent calcium channels, leading to upregulation of GABA inhibitory activity and reduction in the release of various neurotransmitters. Previous functional magnetic click here resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines attenuate amygdala, insula, and medial prefrontal cortex activation during anticipation and emotional processing in healthy

controls. The aim of this study was to examine whether acute PGB administration would attenuate activation in these regions during emotional anticipation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, SB273005 randomized crossover study, 16 healthy controls completed a paradigm involving anticipation of negative and positive affective images during fMRI approximately 1 h after administration of placebo, 50, or 200 mg PGB. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that PGB was associated with (1) decreases in left amygdala and anterior insula activation and (2) increases in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, during anticipation of positive and negative stimuli. There was also a region of the anterior amygdala in which PGB dose was associated with

increased activation during anticipation of negative and decreased activation during anticipation of positive stimuli. Attenuation of amygdala and insula activation during anticipatory or emotional processing may represent a common regional brain mechanism for anxiolytics across drug classes. PGB induced increases in ACC activation could be a unique effect related to top-down modulation of affective processing. These results provide further support for the viability of using pharmaco-fMRI to determine the anxiolytic potential of pharmacologic agents. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 1466-1477; doi:10.1038/npp.2011.32; published online 23 March 2011″
“We consider a generalization of the proportionate flow shop problem with the makespan objective. Each job has a processing requirement and each machine has a characteristic value.

The UT was also explored Results: Although the MYO recorded lowe

The UT was also explored. Results: Although the MYO recorded lower values in all points on the concave side of the scoliosis, there were no significant differences in the comparison between sides (P bigger than .05). No association was observed between BMI and MYO values, whereas the Cobb angle negatively correlated with muscle hardness only at 2 points on the convex EPZ5676 nmr side. Conclusion: The preliminary findings show that, in subjects with a single-curve mild IS, muscular

hardness in the UT and paraspinal muscles, as assessed using a MYO, was not found to differ between the concave and the convex sides at different reference levels.”
“Cardiac troponins I and T are established biomarkers of cardiac injury. Testing for either of these two cardiac troponins has long been an essential component of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. In addition, cardiac troponin concentrations after acute myocardial infarction predict future adverse events including development of ischemic heart failure and chronic elevations of cardiac troponin correlate with heart failure severity. These predictions and correlations are particularly obvious when cardiac troponin concentrations are measured using the new high sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. Thus, a growing body of literature suggests selleck products that cardiac troponin testing

may have important clinical implications for heart failure patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction. In this review, we explore the prognostic utility of measuring cardiac troponin concentrations in patients with acute or chronic heart failure and in populations at risk of developing heart failure and the relationship between cardiac troponin levels and disease severity. We also summarize the ongoing debates and research on whether serial monitoring of cardiac troponin levels may

become a useful tool for guiding therapeutic interventions in patients with heart failure. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The medial temporal PRT062607 clinical trial lobe (MTL) is responsible for various mnemonic functions, such as association/conjunction memory. The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) also plays crucial roles in mnemonic functions and memory-based cognitive behaviors, for example, decision-making. Therefore, it is considered that the MTL and LPFC connect with each other and cooperate for the control of cognitive behaviors. However, there exist very weak, if any, direct inputs from the MTL to the LPFC. Employing retrograde transsynaptic transport of rabies virus, we investigated the organization of disynaptic bottom-up pathways connecting the MTL and the inferotemporal cortex to the LPFC in macaques. Three days after rabies injections into dorsal area 46, a large number of labeled neurons were observed in the MTL, such as the hippocampal formation (including the entorhinal cortex), the perirhinal cortex, and the parahippocampal cortex.

“We review the various aspects of health technology assess

“We review the various aspects of health technology assessment in osteoporosis, including epidemiology and burden of disease, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of

recent advances in the treatment of osteoporosis and the prevention of fracture, in the context of the allocation of health-care resources by decision makers in osteoporosis. This article was prepared on the basis of a symposium held by the Belgian Bone Club and the discussions surrounding that meeting and is based on a review and critical appraisal of the literature. Epidemiological studies confirm the immense burden of osteoporotic fractures for patients and society, with lifetime risks of any fracture of the hip, spine, and forearm of around 40 % for women TH-302 datasheet and 13 % for men. The economic impact is also large; for example, Europe’s six largest countries spent

a,not sign31 billion on osteoporotic fractures in 2010. Moreover, the burden is expected to increase in 3-deazaneplanocin A purchase the future with demographic changes and increasing life expectancy. Recent advances in the management of osteoporosis include novel treatments, better fracture-risk assessment notably via fracture risk algorithms, and improved adherence to medication. Economic evaluation can inform decision makers in health care on the cost-effectiveness of the various interventions. Cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that the recent advances in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis may constitute an efficient basis for the allocation of scarce

health-care resources. In summary, health technology assessment is increasingly used in the field of osteoporosis and could be very useful to help decision makers efficiently allocate health-care resources.”
“Background: The alarmone (p) ppGpp mediates a global reprogramming of gene expression upon nutrient limitation and other stresses to cope with these unfavorable conditions. Synthesis of (p) ppGpp is, in most bacteria, controlled by RelA/SpoT (Rsh) proteins. The role of (p) ppGpp has been characterized primarily in Escherichia coli and several Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report the first in-depth analysis of the (p) ppGpp-regulon in an alpha-proteobacterium using a high-resolution tiling array to better understand GDC-0994 the pleiotropic stress phenotype of a relA/rsh mutant.\n\nResults: We compared gene expression of the Rhizobium etli wild type and rsh (previously rel) mutant during exponential and stationary phase, identifying numerous (p) ppGpp targets, including small non-coding RNAs. The majority of the 834 (p) ppGpp-dependent genes were detected during stationary phase. Unexpectedly, 223 genes were expressed (p) ppGpp-dependently during early exponential phase, indicating the hitherto unrecognized importance of (p) ppGpp during active growth.

Substantial dew point

effects were also observed Larval

Substantial dew point

effects were also observed. Larval foraging behavior was found to be a quantitative trait exhibiting significant genetic variation for path length (P – 0.0004).Metabolic and fitness traits exhibited a complex correlation structure, and there was evidence of selection minimizing weight under laboratory conditions. In addition, a high fat diet significantly increases population variance in metabolic phenotypes, suggesting decreased robustness in the face of dietary perturbation. Changes in metabolic trait mean and variance in response to diet indicates that shifts in both population mean and variance in underlying traits could contribute to increases SB273005 in complex disease.”
“RAGE is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules playing key roles in pathophysiological Selleck Entinostat processes, e.g. immune/inflammatory disorders, Alzheimer’s disease diabetic arteriosclerosis and tumourigenesis. In humans 19 naturally occurring PAGE splicing variants resulting in either N-terminally or C-terminally truncated proteins were identified and are lately discussed as mechanisms for receptor regulation. Accordingly, deregulation of sRAGE levels has been associated with several diseases e.g. Alzheimer’s disease,

Type I diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Administration of recombinant sRAGE to animal models of cancer blocked tumour growth successfully. In spite of its obvious relationship to cancer and metastasis

data focusing sRAGE deregulation and tumours is rare. In this study we screened a set of tumours, healthy tissues and various cancer cell lines for RAGE splicing variants and analysed their structure. Additionally, we analysed the ratio of the mainly found transcript variants using quantitative Real-Time PCR. In total we characterised 24 previously not described canine and 4 human RAGE splicing variants, analysed their structure, classified their characteristics, and derived their respective protein forms. Interestingly the, healthy and the neoplastic tissue samples showed in majority RAGE transcripts coding for the complete receptor and transcripts showing insertions of intron 1. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This study investigated possible differences ARS-1620 chemical structure using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE) protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque) in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age). The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps) drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE) (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval). The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage a.

Seven percent of the cultured microorganisms were not included in

Seven percent of the cultured microorganisms were not included in the FISH panels; the identification rate of those included was 95.2%. Overall, the FISH test enabled accurate pathogen identification in 88.2% of all cases analysed.”
“Background\n\nPost-operative JNK-IN-8 cognitive dysfunction (POCD) can affect 30% of orthopedic surgery patients. We hypothesized that perioperative temperature has an impact on POCD.\n\nMethods\n\nWe included 150 patients over 65 years of age scheduled for total knee replacement under spinal anesthesia. They were randomized to receive standard care (sheet cover) or active warming. Neurocognitive assessment (11 subtests) was performed pre-operatively and at day 4 (three subtests) and 3 months (10

subtests). A control group of 55 nonsurgical patients took the same tests at equivalent times. POCD was defined NSC 66389 as an individual score decrease of more than 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the baseline on at least two subtests or 2

SDs in the combined z-score, in both cases using control-adjusted changes.\n\nResults\n\nTympanic temperature declined below 35 degrees C in 88% of standard-care patients; 25.3% of warmed patients had a temperature >= 36 degrees C. On day 4, 3.2% of standard-care patients and 19.4% of warmed patients had POCD (P=0.0058). At 3 months, there were no between-group differences (standard care, 14.3%; warmed, 6.5%) (P=0.2440).\n\nConclusions\n\nPerioperative warming was associated with a higher incidence of cognitive Temsirolimus mw dysfunction at 4 days after total knee replacement in patients > 65 years of age.”
“Evidence has accumulated that changes in intracellular signaling downstream of desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) may have a significant role in epithelial blistering in the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Currently, most studies on PV involve passive transfer of pathogenic antibodies into neonatal

mice that have not finalized epidermal morphogenesis, and do not permit analysis of mature hair follicles (HFs) and stem cell niches. To investigate Dsg3 antibody-induced signaling in the adult epidermis at defined stages of the HF cycle, we developed a model with passive transfer of AK23 (a mouse monoclonal pathogenic anti-Dsg3 antibody) into adult 8-week-old C57Bl/6J mice. Validated using histopathological and molecular methods, we found that this model faithfully recapitulates major features described in PV patients and PV models. Two hours after AK23 transfer, we observed widening of intercellular spaces between desmosomes and EGFR activation, followed by increased Myc expression and epidermal hyperproliferation, desmosomal Dsg3 depletion, and predominant blistering in HFs and oral mucosa. These data confirm that the adult passive transfer mouse model is ideally suited for detailed studies of Dsg3 antibody-mediated signaling in adult skin, providing the basis for investigations on novel keratinocyte-specific therapeutic strategies.