2012) If tarnishing was part of a patient’s general self-depreca

2012). If tarnishing was part of a patient’s general self-deprecating style, it could be related to psychiatric issues such as anxiety or depression, or a result of learned social behavior consistent with cultural factors. While tarnishing might still have a brain basis, this might be found in neurotransmitter activity or functional connectivity

patterns, or so multifactorial that they could not be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical isolated to frank structural atrophy. It is also possible that brain regions underlying underestimation of one’s empathic concern are widely distributed, not allowing strong correlations between single brain regions and measures of self-awareness. Limitations Some of the primary caveats to the interpretation of our data are inherent in the VBM-technique and the whole-brain approach. First, because the VBM method is Enzalutamide molecular weight essentially based on an atrophy model that relies on the use of a clinically defined sample of subjects with diverse atrophy patterns, the extent to which results can be generalized beyond a study’s population of interest is an issue Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of debate. However, this method has been used to accurately localize cognitive functions to brain areas in patients that had previously been identified in healthy controls using other, nonatrophy-based techniques (Amici et al. 2007), suggesting that generalization is often both possible and appropriate, in particular when working with large sample

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sizes as in this study. Nevertheless, the influence of disease-specific patterns of co-atrophy remains a potential confound. We addressed this issue by performing two additional analyses designed as error checks, which increased the likelihood that our results are not restricted to our study sample but are generalizable to normal brain function. Yet, it remains unclear how much normal aging and neural plasticity in the context Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of disease may limit such generalization. Second, the degree to which structural VBM is truly a whole-brain analysis is limited by the particular

composition of the subject sample. This study intentionally included a large sample of patients with a diverse selection of diseases known collectively to affect most cortical structures in order to maximize sample-wide variability in both brain atrophy and behavior. Though our SPM ResMS maps suggested good variability throughout the cortex in our sample, too it remains possible that some brain regions might have suffered from restriction of range and a corresponding loss of power to detect brain-behavior relationships, particularly in cases where only small numbers of subjects had atrophy to an important region. Finally, our discussion of the clinical and neuroimaging results in the polisher and tarnisher samples are limited by the fact that the clinical phenomena appear in different patients, thus they cannot be directly compared within the same set of subjects.

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