8% (16/62) and 74 2% (46/62) samples, respectively


8% (16/62) and 74.2% (46/62) samples, respectively

(Fig. 1C). Caspase8 was undetectable in 8.3% (6/72) and detected in 91.7% (66/72) samples, respectively. In details, score 1 or score 2 was detected Screening Library clinical trial in 44.4% (32 samples) and 47.3% (34 samples), respectively. Intermediate/high or low intensity cytoplasmatic staining of Caspase8 was detected in 68.2% (45/66) and 31.8% (21/66) samples, respectively (Fig. 1D and Table 2). The statistical analysis of these data showed that the staining intensity of the four analyzed proteins directly correlated with the number of positive cells (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found a simultaneous activation of pJNK and Erk-1 in the evaluated blasts (r = 0.26; p = 0.025). In order to validate the results obtained in ICC, we have evaluated the expression of p-Erk-1 with western blotting with conventional antibodies used for the determination of p-Erk-1 and 2 and total Erk-1/2. The lower band shown in the gel, corresponding to

a M.W. of 44 KDa, is BGB324 price clearly assessable in all the samples. The activity of the enzyme in the different evaluable patients strongly correlated to that one derived from experiments selleck kinase inhibitor performed on blasts with ICC. An example of Erk-1 expression and activity on 10 different samples is now shown in Figure 2. Similar results were also obtained on all the other samples (data not shown). Figure 2 Western blot assay for the expression of pErk 1 and 2 and total Erk 1 and 2. The cells were processed for the determination of the phosphorylation and expression oxyclozanide of Erk-1 and 2 evaluated after blotting with a specific anti-pMAPK and an anti-MAPK Mab, respectively, as described in “”Materials and Methods”". Expression of the house-keeping protein α-tubulin was used as loading control. In the same figure, the scores of the staining intensities of pErk-1 obtained

at ICC in the same samples are also shown. The experiments were performed at least three different times and the results were always similar. Protein activation levels in different groups subdivided for type of disease When patients where subdivided into two different groups according to the diagnosis of neoplastic disease (ALL/NHL vs AML) we found a statistically significant difference of Gadd45a (p < 0.0001), pJNK (p = 0.0001), and Caspase8 (p = 0.004) between AML and ALL/NHL patients. Conversely, no difference in the phosphorylation of Erk-1 was detectable (p = 0.09). Interestingly, all AML patients showed an upregulation of the four studied proteins (Table 3). Table 3 Proteins status in neoplasia subgroups   GADD45a   pERK-1   c-JUN   CASP ASE8   Score 0 1 2 p 0 1 2 p 0 1 2 p 0 1 2 p ALL/NHL 12 12 3 < 0.001 3 10 14 0.09 10 10 7 0.0001 6 10 11 0.004 AML 0 18 27   0 12 33   0 26 19   0 22 23   p values in bold are statistically significant. Correlation between constitutive proteins activation and outcome At the time of this analysis 23 patients (31.9%) were alive in continuous complete remission, three patients (5.

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