ABC transporters are multicomponent

systems, which includ

ABC transporters are multicomponent

systems, which include one or two integral membrane proteins that constitute the channel across the membrane, an ATP-binding protein that hydrolyzes ATP and drives the transport, and in most cases, an extracellular solute-binding protein [46]. ABC transport systems play an important role in many different aspects of bacterial physiology, facilitating the import of nutrients, and in the extrusion of toxins and antimicrobial agents [47]. Sugar ABC transporters facilitate the transport of a variety of sugars. Some microorganisms utilize highly efficient sugar ABC transporters to

survive when substrate concentrations are extremely Selleck PX-478 low [48]. The two-component system sensor kinase (spot 30) was also found to be up-regulated in our study. The two-component system is one of the signal transduction systems in microorganisms that consists of a sensor histidine kinase (SK) and a response regulator (RR). This system responds Captisol solubility dmso to a large number of environmental signals [49] and is postulated to play an important role in root colonization [50]. The up-regulation of the proteins involved in membrane transport and signal transduction might be related to the utilization of rhizodeposition by root-associated bacteria. This probably H 89 facilitates root colonization by these bacteria. Besides, most of proteins originated from fungi (including spot 3, mitochondrial N-glycosylase/DNA lyase; spot 7, ORP1; spot 20, kinesin-like protein and spot 34, isocitrate dehydrogenase) showed higher expression levels in ratoon cane soil than in the plant cane and control soils (Table 4). The functional gene expression differences in soil microbial communities are probably mediated Rebamipide by a change in the amount and composition of root

exudates [51, 52]. Despite the limited number of soil proteins identified, our metaproteomic analysis results, combined with soil enzyme assays and CLPP analysis, provide a solid foundation to understand the interactions between the soil organisms and plants in the soil ecosystem. Environmental metaproteomics has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for structural and functional characterization of microbial communities in their natural habitat [53, 54], with an increasing improvement in MS performance [55] and soil protein extraction [56]. Metaproteomics is most powerful when combined with metagenomics or when using unmatched metagenomic datasets [57].

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