And the remaining barrier layer

can be removed as this pr

And the remaining barrier layer

can be removed as this process goes on, leaving an AAO template without barrier layer, as shown in Figure 2e. Figure 8 shows the HDAC inhibitor bottom of AAO anodized in oxalic acid at 40 V for 2 h, twice the time for the Al layer to run out as shown in Figure 6c. These images indicate that the barrier layers are totally opened. Figure 8a is the bottom view of AAO. In this image, we can see that there are no barrier layers left in the template. The holes are distributed randomly. Figure 8b is the cross-sectional image of AAO; the side view of the bottom can be seen and the bottom is apparently open. This phenomenon can provide a powerful evidence that the barrier layer can be removed as shown in Figure 2e. Figure 8 SEM image of AAO without barrier layer by anodizing in GANT61 in vitro oxalic acid at 40 V for 2 h. (a) bottom view, (b) cross-sectional view. Conclusion In this study, an efficient way to form AAO film on ITO glass is performed, reducing the anodizing time to about 30 s. The forming process of AAO on ITO

has been explained based on the current-time curves. The thickness of the AAO film anodized in oxalic acid increased first and then decreased with the progress of the anodization process. Getting rid of barrier layer has been proved to be the key to make electrical contact at the bottom, which helps to assemble nanowire structures on ITO glass directly. Having enough anodizating time, the barrier layer could be eliminated. This method will be highly advantageous to form nanostructured photoelectric devices. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Major Basic Research Project of 2012CB934302, Blebbistatin National 863 Program 2011AA050518, and the Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos.11174197 and 61234005). References 1. Cao GZ, Liu DW: Template-based synthesis of nanorod, nanowire, and nanotube arrays . Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2008, 136:45–64.CrossRef 2. Weickert J, Dunbar RB, Hesse HC, Wiedemann W, Schmidt ML: Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells . Adv Mater 2011, second 23:1810–1828.CrossRef 3. Fang XS, Wu LM, Hu LF: ZnS nanostructure arrays: a developing material star . Adv Mater 2011, 23:585–598.CrossRef

4. Devan RS, Patil RA, Lin JH, Ma YR: One-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructures: recent developments in synthesis, characterization, and applications . Adv Funct Mater 2012, 16:3326–3370.CrossRef 5. Masuda H, Fukuda K: Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina . Science 1995, 268:1466.CrossRef 6. Li CL, Zheng MJ, Wang XH, Yao LJ, Ma L, Shen WZ: Fabrication and ultraviolet photoresponse characteristics of ordered SnO x (x approximate to 0.87, 1.45, 2) nanopore films . Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6:615.CrossRef 7. Qi JW, Li YD, Yang M, Wu Q, Chen ZQ, Peng JY, Liu Y, Wang WD, Yu XY, Sun Q, Xu JJ, Ming: Fabrication of nanowire network AAO and its application in SERS . Nanoscale Res Lett 2013, 8:495.CrossRef 8.

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