annularis wasp venom (Q9U6V9), covering approximately 17% of this

annularis wasp venom (Q9U6V9), covering approximately 17% of this sequence (Score: 91, p < 0.05; see Supplementary Material). Through this analysis it was also possible to determine a molecular mass of 43,277 Da and a calculated pI value of 8.13 for Pp-Hyal,

while the values for the protein obtained by molecular cloning were a molecular weight of 39,648.8 Da and a pI of 8.77. These differences may result from the specificities of each technique and the degree to which the digested peptides retained their post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and glycosylation, which result in changes to the pI and molecular mass ( Seo and Lee, 2004). Western blotting was carried out using the specific Pp-Hyal-antibody, as previously described. As shown in Fig. 9, the specificity of Pp-Hyal-specific antibody was confirmed by Western blotting because it recognized the Pp-Hyal protein in purified fraction ( Fig. 9A) and crude venom ( Fig. 9B, lane I), but no reaction was observed with venoms of A. pallipes pallipes, P. lanio lanio, check details A. mellifera or S. invicta ( Fig. 9B, lanes IV–VII), although a significant amount of immune cross-reactivity was observed with venoms from the genus Polybia (sericea and ignobilis) ( Fig. 9B, lanes II and III). Recognition of other protein bands in the extracts of P. paulista crude venom by the Pp-Hyal-antibody

would Digestive enzyme most likely be due to the presence of four isoforms of Pp-Hyal, as recently described by Santos et al. (2010) and Pinto et al. (2012), which likely share some common epitopes. Hyaluronidase of wasp venom is an allergen that has been extensively studied in several genders and species of European and American wasps, but few studies have been conducted in Neotropical social wasps. A high degree of immunological cross-reactivity among the allergens in the venom of Hymenoptera insects makes identification of the insect responsible for the stings difficult. Patients previously sensitized to the venom of a specific insect (e.g. from wasp) who are then stung for a second time by a different

insect, can exhibit the presence of non-specific IgE antibodies. This can result in false-positive due to cross-reactivity with the allergens of different venoms whose epitopes have similar conformations, thus rendering differentiation by B-1 cells impossible. In addition, false-negative results can be observed in skin tests due to the low amount of IgE detected by tests with low sensitivity (e.g. RAST) (Hemmer, 2008). In this study, the deduced primary sequence of Pp-Hyal protein from cDNA cloning presented a high degree of similarity to the same protein from P. annularis venom. This species is phylogenetically closer to P. paulista than the other species used here for comparison, even though both Polistes and Polybia belong to the same Polistinae subfamily.

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