Another 24 patients who were

Another 24 patients who were recruited into a prospective randomized controlled trial were also excluded. Finally, the data obtained from 141 patients were analyzed to elucidate the renal outcome. The patients were followed

up until April 2012 or the last day of serum creatinine measurement before April 2012. The cohort study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the PD-1/PD-L1 activation Medical Ethics Committee of Jikei University School of Medicine. Definitions The endpoint was defined as a 50 % increase in serum creatinine from baseline. Disappeared proteinuria or hematuria was defined as a urinary protein excretion (UPE) <0.3 g/day or having urinary sediment of red blood cells (U-RBC) <5/high power field (hpf). Clinical remission was defined as the disappearance of both proteinuria and hematuria. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the Japanese eGFR equation based on age, sex and serum creatinine [13]. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as arterial blood selleck chemicals pressure (BP) ≥130/80 mmHg [14]. Smoking status was defined according

to a report by Yamamoto et al. [15]. Treatment The 6-month steroid therapy was previously reported by Pozzi et al. [11, 12], and was modified for Japanese patients as follows: the patients received 0.5 g of methylprednisolone intravenously for three consecutive days at the beginning of the steroid course and again 2 and 4 months later; they were also given

oral prednisolone at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg every other day for 6 months. Some patients received a tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis AZD8186 in vitro complicated with IgAN just before the 6 months of steroid therapy. The patients were administered angiotensin-converting PLEK2 enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (RAAS inhibitors) and antiplatelet agents as needed. Histology To examine the impact of pathological changes on renal survival, renal biopsy data were obtained if a biopsy was performed within 1 year before corticosteroid therapy. All renal biopsy specimens were processed routinely for light microscopy. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid–Schiff, together with silver methenamine and Masson’s trichrome. Pathological variables were evaluated according to the Oxford classification [16]. “Histological grade (HG)” recently reported from the Special Study Group on Progressive Glomerular Disease in Japan was also adopted in this study [17]. Briefly, four histological grades, HG 1, HG 2, HG 3 and HG 4, were established corresponding to <25, 25–49, 50–74 and ≥75 % of glomeruli exhibiting cellular or fibrocellular crescents, global sclerosis, segmental sclerosis or fibrous crescents. Statistical analyses Normally distributed variables were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) and compared using the t test or one-way ANOVA.

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