Apart from the 15-bp gap sequence, the PCR product has the same s

Apart from the 15-bp gap sequence, the PCR product has the same sequence as the wild-type VC1345 gene of 95-4. The PCR fragment was then cloned into the NcoI enzyme site of the expression vector pET15b (No. 69661-3; Novagen, Germany) and transformed into wild-type strain 95-4. The original VC1345 gene of 95-4 was also amplified and cloned into pET15b, then transformed into 95-4 as a control. Figure 1 The aligning maps of the sequences of VC1345 gene and the schematic diagram of the primers used in the function analysis of the 15bp gap of the VC1345 gene of

the O139 pigment producing V. cholerae strains. A. Mutation of the strain 3182 compared to other strains. B. Mutation of the O139 pigment producing strains. Two dashed boxes up the VC1345 gene sequence showed the short direct repeat at the deletion breakpoint. 2.4 Ribotyping Chromosomal DNAs of the test strains were extracted and VX-809 supplier digested with the enzyme BglI. DNA fragments were separated and transferred to nylon membranes. The membranes were prehybridized at 42°C for 2 h in hybridization solution without probe (2× SSC, 1% block reagent, 0.1% this website N-lauryl sarcosine, 0.02% SDS, and 50% formamide) and then hybridized with the freshly denatured labeled

gene probes at 42°C for 12 h. Hybridized membranes were washed twice in 2× SSC-0.1% SDS for 5 min at room temperature, followed by two washes in 0.1× SSC-0.1% SDS for 15 min at 68°C. The probe used in this typing was the PCR product of the conserved 16S rRNA gene of Escherichia coli, which was amplified by primers 5′-TTT

AAT GAC CAG CAC AGT-3′ and 5′-TCT GCC AGT GTT ACA ACC-3′, and was CH5183284 in vivo labeled using a random primer DIG DNA Labeling and Detection Kit (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Indianapolis, IN). Detection was based on digoxigenin-anti digoxigenin ELISA, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 2.5 Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) The PFGE protocol used was based on the PulseNet 1-day standardized PFGE protocol for V. cholerae [25]. The cell suspension in a polystyrene tube (Falcon; 12 by 75 mm) was adjusted to an optical density Teicoplanin of 4.0-4.2 using bioMerieux DENSIMAT; V. cholerae slices were digested with 20 U per slice NotI (New England Biolabs) for 4 h at 37°C. Electrophoresis was performed using a CHEF-DRIII system (Bio-Rad Laboratories). Images were captured using a Gel Doc 2000 system (Bio-Rad) and converted to TIFF files for computer analysis. The BioNumerics software package (version 4.0; Applied Maths, Inc.) was used to analyze the PFGE patterns. Fragments smaller than 20.5 kbp were not taken into account. Similarity analysis was performed by calculating Dice coefficients (SD), with customized tolerance for each EP. SD was calculated as follows: where n xy is the number of bands common to isolates x and y, n x is the total number of bands for isolate x, and n y is the total number of bands for isolate y.

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