Apparently, the patient was an isolated case with negative family history for anatomic anomalies. PVA complications are various and thrombosis is the most frequent one. Patients with thrombophilia have a higher risk to
develop portal vein thrombosis. In our case this cause was excluded. The review of the literature disclosed 13 cases of thrombosed EPVA [4–13]. The largest one, measuring 81 × 109 mm was reported by Oleske Selleckchem MLN2238 A and Hines GL and was also successfully treated conservatively. The level of evidence regarding the management of thrombosed EPVA remains low as only few cases have been published so far. Nevertheless, authors considered clinically symptomatic patients and complete thrombosis of PVA as indications for surgery [7, 9, 18]. Brock et al. postulated that patients with thrombosis extending to SMV and SV should undergo thrombectomy and restoration of portal
vein anatomy ; but complication rates of surgical management have not been reported. It can be strongly assumed that a conservative treatment has lower complication rates, and reported conservative treatments of thrombosed EPVA have provided good results, as in our case [5, 8, 10, 12]. Subsequently, we would not consider presence of symptoms or thrombosis as strict indications for surgery, and a conservative approach and follow-up in first intent even for aneurysm of great size or extension to SMV/SV is recommended. This approach is also supported by the low risk of aneurismal rupture, 2.2% . In case of treatment failure, surgical treatment should be considered. Conclusions Although rare PVA are being more and more frequent. GS-4997 cell line General surgeons should be made aware of this entity, taking part in a differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. Mechanisms and etiologies remain ill defined. We GSK2399872A purchase report the case of the second largest extra-hepatic portal vein aneurysm selleck chemicals llc with complete thrombosis, described so far. The patient was treated conservatively with good clinical and radiological response. This case supports a conservative strategy for PVA, in first intent. Consent Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this Case
report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal. References 1. Doust BD, Pearce JD: Gray-scale ultrasonic properties of the normal and inflamed pancreas. Radiology 1976,120(3):653–657.PubMed 2. Koc Z, Oguzkurt L, Ulusan S: Portal venous system aneurysms: imaging, clinical findings, and a possible new etiologic factor. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2007,189(5):1023–1030.PubMedCrossRef 3. Sfyroeras GS, Antoniou GA, Drakou AA, Karathanos C, Giannoukas AD: Visceral venous aneurysms: clinical presentation, natural history and their management: a systematic review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2009,38(4):498–505.PubMedCrossRef 4. Oleske A, Hines GL: Portal venous aneurysms–report of 4 cases. Ann Vasc Surg 2010,24(5):695.