“Background: In the randomized study of interferon beta-1b

“Background: In the randomized study of interferon beta-1b (IFN beta-1b) for multiple sclerosis (MS), it has usually been evaluated the simple annual relapse rate as the study endpoint. This study aimed to investigate the performance

of various regression models using information regarding the time to each recurrent event and considering the MS specific data generation process, and to estimate the treatment effect of a MS clinical trial data.

Methods: We conducted a simulation study with consideration of the pathological characteristics of MS, and applied alternative efficacy estimation methods to real clinical trial data, including 5 extended Cox regression models for time-to-event analysis, buy Vorinostat a Poisson regression model and a Poisson regression model with Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). We adjusted for other important covariates that may have affected the outcome.

Results: We compared the simulation results for each model. The hazard ratios of real data were estimated for each model including the effects of other covariates. The https://www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-203580.html results (hazard ratios of high-dose to low-dose) of all models were approximately 0.7 (range, 0.613 – 0.769), whereas

the annual relapse rate ratio was 0.714.

Conclusions: The precision of the treatment estimation was increased by application of the alternative models. This suggests that the use of alternative models that include recurrence event data may provide better analyses.”

Female dogs have approximately twice the risk of males for developing primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). The cause of this gender difference is unknown, but one theory proposes that the gender differences in iridocorneal angle morphology are involved in check details this risk differential.

Procedures Fifty beagles (25 males, 25 females) were included into this study and had normal baseline ophthalmic examinations. Normal dogs were selected so as to avoid any potentially confounding influence of goniodysgenesis. Standardized 20-MHz high-resolution ultrasound images of the iridocorneal angle were acquired from one eye of each dog with the scan plane perpendicular to the limbus in the superior temporal quadrant. Images were imported into ImageJ, and the angle opening distance (AOD) and angle recess area (ARA) were measured by a masked observer, and the analysis of variance method was used to compare differences.

Results The mean (+/- SD) AOD was significantly smaller for female dogs (0.847 +/- 0.241 mm) vs. male dogs (1.058 +/- 0.322 mm) P-value = 0.012. The mean (+/- SD) ARA tended to be smaller for female dogs (0.584 +/- 0.278 mm) vs. male dogs (0.748 +/- 0.385 mm), but this difference was not significant (P-value = 0.092).

Conclusions Female dogs have a significantly smaller AOD vs. males.

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