“Bone is a plastic tissue with a large healing capability. However, extensive bone loss due to disease or trauma requires tissue-engineering applications. Presently, bone grafting is the gold standard for bone repair, but presents serious limitations including donor site morbidity, rejection, and limited tissue regeneration. The use of stem cells appears BYL719 concentration to be a means to overcome such limitations. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) have been the choice, thus far, for stem cell therapy for bone regeneration.
However, it has been shown that adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have similar immunophenotype, morphology, multilineage potential, and transcriptome compared to BMSC. Moreover, ASC are much more abundant, more accessible and have lower donor morbidity, which combined
may make ASC a better alternative to BMSC. ASC are also able to migrate to the site of injury and have immunosuppressive abilities similar to BMSC. Further, ASC have demonstrated extensive osteogenic capacity both in vitro and in vivo in several species, greatly enhancing the healing of critical size defects. The use of scaffolds in combination with ASC and growth factors provides a valuable tool for guided bone regeneration, especially for complex anatomic defects. Some critical elements include ASC-scaffold interactions and appropriate three-dimensional design of the porous osteoinductive structures. This review examines selleck screening library data that provides strong support for the clinical translation of ASC for bone regeneration. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and the MTHFR c.677C > T variant have been postulated to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), although mechanisms and implications to pediatrics remain incompletely understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalences of elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant buy BMS-777607 in a pediatric population with VTE or arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), and to determine associations with thrombus outcomes.\n\nStudy Design: Subjects were
enrolled in an institution-based prospective cohort of children with VTE or AIS. Inclusion criteria consisted of objectively confirmed thrombus, <= 21 years at diagnosis, tHcy measured and MTHFR c.677C > T mutation analysis. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Frequencies for elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant were compared with NHANES values for healthy US children and also between study groups (VTE vs AIS, provoked vs idiopathic) and by age.\n\nResults: The prevalences of hyperhomocysteinemia or MTHFR variant were not increased in comparison to NHANES. tHcy did not differ between those with wild-type MTHFR versus either c.677C > T heterozygotes or homozygotes. There was no association between tHcy or MTHFR variant and thrombus outcomes.