C57BL/6 mice (2 months old) were i n infected with 5 HAU of infl

C57BL/6 mice (2 months old) were i.n. infected with 5 HAU of influenza virus. After 3 days, lung mononuclear cells were isolated from infected mice or uninfected mice, and then the cell suspensions were layered on a Histopaque-1083 gradient (Sigma-Aldrich), and centrifuge at 400 × g for 30 min at room temperature. Subsequently NK cells were purified using a negative selection mouse NK cell enrichment kit (StemCell Technologies), and labeled by CellTrace™

Violet (Invitrogen Corporation). As described previously [52, 53], 2 × 106 NK cells in 0.25 mL PBS were injected i.v. into recipient mice via the tail vein. On the same Selleck BGJ398 day, the mice were i.n. infected with 5 HAU of influenza A/PR8 virus. After infection, NK cells from lung and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry 15 h later. The survival rate and body weight of

infected mice were monitored daily. Two months check details old C57BL/6 mice were i.n. infected with 5 HAU of influenza virus or normal egg allantoic fluid on day 0. At days 2, 4, and 6 after infection, mice were euthanized and lungs were isolated and fixed in 10% buffered formalin, then embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Specimens were stained with H&E and examined using a Zeiss Axio Imager M1 microscope equipped with an AxioCam HRc camera under control of AxioVision 4 software (Carl Zeiss Canada Ltd.). GraphPad Prism 4.00 (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was used for all analyses. Differences among experimental groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey multiple comparison test. Unpaired t-test (two-tailed) was used to compare pairs of groups. Survival curves were assessed by survival analysis in Prism. Values were reported as the mean ± SEM. This work was supported by operating grants from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (to K.P.K.). We thank Suellen Lamb, Dr. L. Tyrrell Laboratory, University of Alberta for making histologic sections

and performing hematoxylin and eosin staining. We thank Donger Gong for her technical support. The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. “
“The description of highly Wilson disease protein exposed individuals who remain seronegative (HESN) despite repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has heightened interest in identifying potential mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance. HIV-specific humoral and T cell-mediated responses have been identified routinely in HESN subjects, although it remains unknown if these responses are a definitive cause of protection or merely a marker for exposure. Approximately half of HESN lack any detectible HIV-specific adaptive immune responses, suggesting that other mechanisms of protection from HIV-1 infection also probably exist.

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