Conclusions  The experience of pain and discomfort during and af

Conclusions.  The experience of pain and discomfort during and after extraction of the primary canines is low, despite that 42% of the children used analgesics. Therefore, appropriate analgesics and recommendation doses pre- and post-extraction should be prescribed. “
“International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 341–346 Background.  Caries risk assessment is an important tool in clinical decision making. Aim.  To evaluate longitudinal changes in caries risk profiles in a group of schoolchildren in relation to caries development. Design.  The Cariogram model was used to create caries

risk profiles and to identify risk factors in 438 children being 10–11 years at baseline. The assessment was repeated after 2 years and the caries increment was recorded. The frequency Cabozantinib ic50 of unfavourable risk factors were compared between those considered at the lowest and the highest risk. Results.  Fifty percent of the children remained in the same risk category after 2 years. One third of the children were assessed in a higher-risk

category while GSK-3 cancer 18.4% showed a lower risk. Those with increased risk compared with baseline developed significantly more caries than those with an unchanged risk category. The most frequent unfavourable risk factors among those with high risk at baseline were high-salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts as well as frequent meals. Conclusion.  Half of the children showed a changed risk category after 2 years, for better or for worse, which suggests that regular risk assessments are needed in order to make appropriate decisions on targeted preventive care and recall intervals. “
“Hereditary angiodema (HAE), also known as C1 esterase inhibitor ID-8 deficiency, causes sufferers to experience episodic

subcutaneous and submucosal oedema. These episodes can be triggered by dental treatment and manifest as life-threatening oedematous swelling in the head and neck region. This case report reviews an adolescent with hereditary angiodema whose malocclusion required orthodontic intervention. Due to her complex and unpredictable reaction to dental treatment, various options were explored before determining the appropriate care pathway for this patient. Trial placement of a sectional fixed appliance tested the tissue reaction prior to comprehensive treatment including extractions and fixed orthodontic appliances. This report demonstrates successful interdisciplinary management facilitating orthodontic care in a patient with HAE. “
“International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2013; 23: 197–206 Background.  Despite the worldwide increasing interest in the prevalence studies of molar–incisor hypomineralization (MIH), there is still insufficient evidence to verify the aetiological factors of this condition. Aims.  To investigate risk factors involved in the development of MIH in a group of school-aged Iraqi children. Design.

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