Extraction of HVs from the three-dimensional magnetization prepar

Extraction of HVs from the three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo MRI data in 43 MCI cases was performed using a commercial, US Food and Drug Administration-approved, fully automated volumetric measurement selleckchem program (NeuroQuant?) [36]. Preprocessing of the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images was performed to correct for bias field effects and remove noise using anisotropic diffusion prior to manual segmentation of deep WMH. Manual segmentation of the WMH (PR) was performed using MRIcro software [37]. The total WMH volume in each MCI subject was calculated, as well as the number of individual lesions. All volumes were normalized for head size using the total intracranial volume, defined as the sum of gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumes.

Spatial normalization and co-registration of the PET and MRI images was performed using SPM8 [38]. PET images were processed with a semiautomatic volume of interest method. This method used a preset template of narrow cortical volume of interest that was either applied to the spatially normalized MRI and then transferred to the co-registered FBB scan or applied directly to the spatially normalized FBB scan. Minor manual adjustments were made to ensure that overlap with white matter and cerebrospinal fluid was minimized. Mean radioactivity values were obtained from the volume of interest for the cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions. The cerebellar cortical volume of interest was placed taking care to avoid cerebellar white matter.

All volume of interest placement was performed by a single experienced operator (VLV) blind to the clinical status of the individuals. No correction for partial volume effects was applied to the PET data. The standardized uptake value, defined as the decay-corrected brain radioactivity concentration normalized for injected dose and body weight, was AV-951 calculated for all regions. These values were then used to derive the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR), which was referenced to the cerebellar cortex. Neocortical A?? deposition was expressed as the average SUVR of the mean for the following cortical regions of interest: frontal (consisting of dorsolateral prefrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal, and orbitofrontal regions), superior parietal, lateral temporal, lateral occipital, and anterior and posterior cingulate.

To identify a SUVR cutoff Idelalisib structure point, a hierarchical cluster analysis of the neocortical SUVR of FBB scans in healthy control participants was performed similar to that previously described [10]. The cutoff value for high neocortical SUVR in this study was defined as ?? 1.45. Statistical analysis Independent-sample t-tests were used to compare means of MCI subtypes with healthy controls and AD patients, and to compare means within the MCI subtypes. Categorical differences were assessed using Fisher’s exact test.

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