For all but one sample, the Chao1 minimum richness estimates for the V1V2 dataset are in close agreement with the observed number of OTUs (Table 2). In addition, the Pevonedistat molecular weight rarefaction curves approached saturation, demonstrating that the OTU diversity was almost completely covered by the V1V2 variable region (Figure 3A and 3C). In contrast, the Chao1 estimates and
the rarefaction curves for all but one of the V6 samples indicated that the current sequencing effort for the V6 variable region was not exhaustive (Table 2 and Figure 3B, D). Clinical significance of the bacterial DNA identified in human female urine The anaerobe microbial profile of urine specimens is not routinely investigated in microbiological laboratories since fastidious bacteria often evade standard culture conditions. The present work shows that, besides bacterial species associated with vaginal, fecal and skin bacterial flora, unsurprising PD0332991 ic50 considering the anatomy of the female urogenital tract, several types of bacteria previously not seen in female urine were identified. Interestingly, some species detected have earlier been described as causing UTI and bacterial vaginosis (BV), but here we also detect these potentially
pathogenic species in asymptomatic healthy female urine samples. For example, most of the fastidious (opportunistic), Tariquidar in vitro mostly anaerobic pathogenic bacteria identified by 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing in a study of UTI samples , were also detected in our study. On the other hand, uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC), a common cause of UTI , was not detected in any of our urine samples. Lactobacillus was dominant in the urine microbiota (see Figure 2A), as it is in the human
vaginal microbiota, and all of the other genera previously found in vaginal microbiota were also identified Isotretinoin in our samples [64, 79]. BV is in a majority of cases characterized by a shift in composition of the vaginal microbial community that results in decreased number of lactic producing bacteria and increased numbers of other facultative or anaerobic species in relation to normal bacterial flora . A similar shift in bacterial composition as seen in BV was found in 4 of our eight urine samples: Lactobacillus was either present at a low abundance or not detected at all, and the other genera present were mostly anaerobes. One of these, the anaerobe Prevotella disiens is also typically found in females with genital tract infections. Furthermore, the genus Gardnerella, comprising only the species G. vaginalis, is involved in BV, as well as associated with preterm delivery [94, 95], and also reported as an uropathogen [9, 96]. Both the species Aerococcus urinae and the genus Ureaplasma, examples of “”difficult-to-culture pathogens”" commonly not detectable by conventional culture methods , were detected in our samples. A.