For example, sham TMS is often delivered to the vertex of the hea

For example, sham TMS is often delivered to the vertex of the head, or electrode position Cz. The closest RGFP966 supplier brain region to Cz is the precentral gyrus (Koessler et al., 2009), so an experiment that uses Cz as a location for OAS should include a test for motor function. In this article we have discussed two different common ways to control for the effect of stimulation delivery in experiments

or clinical trials. While these controls are often generally called ‘sham stimulation’, we have identified two separate types of sham, which we call active and inactive sham stimulation. All brain stimulation experiments carry some risk to the participant. It is the ethical responsibility of the researcher to minimize these risks for any individual participant, while at the same time maximizing the scientific utility of each experiment. In this article we have argued that active control

brain stimulation carries greater risks than inactive control, and should be avoided where possible. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. N.J.D. and R.M.B. were supported by the Future and Emerging Technologies programme of the European Commission (FETOpen-222079, HIVE). We acknowledge the priority of Matthew Rushworth in describing the vertex of the head as the ‘Empty Quarter’. Abbreviations FEM finite element modelling OAS off-target active stimulation SCS sham control stimulation TBS theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation tCS transcranial current stimulation TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation “
“Generalization is an important process that allows animals to extract rules from regularities of past experience and apply them to analogous situations. In particular, the generalization of previously learned actions to novel instruments allows animals to use past experience to act faster and more efficiently in an ever-changing environment. However, generalization of actions to a dissimilar instrument or situation may also be detrimental. L-gulonolactone oxidase In this study,

we investigated the neural bases of action generalization and discrimination in mice trained on a lever-pressing task. Using specific schedules of reinforcement known to bias animals towards habitual or goal-directed behaviors, we confirmed that action generalization is more prominent in animals using habitual rather than goal-directed strategies. We discovered that selective excitotoxic lesions of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum have opposite effects on the generalization of a previously learned action to a novel lever. Whereas lesions of the dorsolateral striatum impair action generalization, dorsomedial striatum lesions affect action discrimination and bias subjects towards action generalization. Importantly, these lesions do not affect the ability of animals to explore or match their lever-pressing rate to the reinforcement rate, or the ability to distinguish between different levers.

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