addition, a negative correlation between Bacteroidetes and Bact/Firm ratio with BMI was observed. These results are consistent with those reported by Ley et al.  in which decreased Bacteroidetes and increased Firmicutes was associated with obesity and increased energy absorption . The Kazakh Crenigacestat in vitro people are a relatively isolated minority in China and have similarities in living environment and diet, which would likely minimize the difference in the gastrointestinal microbiota among individuals. In the present study, the number of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in obese children than in children with normal weight, resulting in a reduced Bact/Firm ratio. No difference in the Bact/Firm ratio was Ralimetinib nmr observed between the overweight and normal groups, which is consistent
with that reported by Li et al. . However, as previously stated, discrepant results have been reported. For example, in 98 subjects, including 30 with normal weight, 35 with overweight, and 33 obese individuals, the number of Bacteroidetes in overweight subjects was higher than that in the normal group. Furthermore, Duncan et al.  found that the number of Bacteroidetes in obese subjects was comparable with that in normal weight subjects, and the proportion of Bacteroidetes remained unchanged following diet control in obese subjects . The present find more study also found that the difference in Bacteroidetes levels observed between the normal and obese children were mainly contributed by the values obtained in the girls as differences in Bacteroidetes levels were observed between normal and obese girls but not boys. This is different from that Tau-protein kinase reported by Mueller et al. , who reported a higher Bacteroidetes Prevotella number in male than in female. A result that may be explained by the age differences between these two studies. In addition, gender differences in the level of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were observed in those participants
of normal weight, but not in the overweight and obese groups, which is in agreement with Mueller et al. . While the cause of this difference is unclear, gender differences in iron metabolism , which affects the composition of microbiota [36, 37], may explain the varying levels of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes between normal weight girls and boys observed in this study. More studies with large sample size or more populations are needed to elucidate the specific role of gastrointestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity as well as the influence of gender on microbiota composition. Although it is known that obesity is associated with changes in composition as well as function of gut microbiota, the mechanism behind this alteration remains to be elucidated.